(1) What is the first paragraph of the blockchain
Is it this? The first time I learned about blockchain, it was based on this
If you are a woman, on a certain night of a certain year, a certain month, and a certain day, your male ticket said to you “I love you forever” , and then you send this sentence to your girlfriends, parents, circle of friends, public account, WeChat group, etc., your male ticket can no longer be denied, you give a tip to thank them for remembering and testifying to you, this The tip is the token,
you, your boyfriend, the sentence “I love you forever”, the time and place of the sentence, etc., are packaged to form a structured information package, this information package is called “Blocks”, and your girlfriends, parents, circle of friends, public accounts and WeChat groups and other nodes are “chains”. In the end, your male ticket does not admit to saying this, and you are a bad guy. You turn out this ledger Confront and scold him, this is the application of blockchain.
(ii) What is blockchain technology? What exactly is blockchain?
In a narrow sense, blockchain is an A chained data structure composed of sequential connections, and a cryptographically guaranteed untamperable and unforgeable distributed ledger.
In a broad sense, blockchain technology is the use of block chain data structures to verify and store data, the use of distributed node consensus algorithms to generate and update data, and the use of cryptography to ensure data transmission and access. A new distributed infrastructure and computing method that uses smart contracts composed of automated script code to program and manipulate data.
Generally speaking, blockchain system consists of data layer, network layer, consensus layer, incentive layer, contract layer and application layer. layer composition. Among them, the data layer encapsulates the underlying data blocks and related basic data and basic algorithms such as data encryption and timestamp; the network layer includes distributed networking mechanisms, data dissemination mechanisms and data verification mechanisms; the consensus layer mainly encapsulates network nodes The incentive layer integrates economic factors into the blockchain technology system, mainly including the issuance mechanism and distribution mechanism of economic incentives, etc. The contract layer mainly encapsulates various scripts, algorithms and smart contracts, which is a blockchain The basis of programmable features; the application layer encapsulates various application scenarios and cases of the blockchain. In this model, the timestamp-based chain block structure, the consensus mechanism of distributed nodes, the economic incentives based on consensus computing power, and flexible and programmable smart contracts are the most representative innovations of blockchain technology.
[Blockchain core technology]
Blockchain mainly solves the problem of trust and security of transactions, so it proposes Four technological innovations have been made:
1. Distributed ledger, that is, transaction accounting is completed by multiple nodes distributed in different places, and each node records a complete account, so they are all Can participate in monitoring the legality of transactions, and can also testify jointly for it.
The uniqueness of the distributed storage of the blockchain is mainly reflected in two aspects: First, each node of the blockchain stores complete data according to the blockchain structure. Data is divided into multiple copies according to certain rules for storage. Second, the storage of each node in the blockchain is independent and has the same status, relying on the consensus mechanism to ensure the consistency of storage, while traditional distributed storage generally synchronizes data to other backup nodes through the central node.
No node can record the ledger data alone, thus avoiding the possibility of a single bookkeeper being controlled or bribed to keep false accounts. Also because there are enough accounting nodes, in theory, unless all nodes are destroyed, the account will not be lost, thus ensuring the security of the account data.
2. Asymmetric encryption and authorization technology, the transaction information stored on the blockchain is public, but the account identity information is highly encrypted and can only be accessed with the authorization of the data owner , thus ensuring data security and personal privacy.
3. The consensus mechanism is how to reach a consensus among all accounting nodes to determine the validity of a record. This is both a means of identification and a means of preventing tampering. The blockchain proposes four different consensus mechanisms, which are suitable for different application scenarios and strike a balance between efficiency and security.
The consensus mechanism of the blockchain has the characteristics of “minority obeys majority” and “everyone is equal”, in which “minority obeys majority” does not completely refer to the number of nodes, but also the computing power and the number of shares. Or other feature quantities that can be compared by computers. “Everyone is equal” means that when a node meets the conditions, all nodes have the right to give priority to the consensus result, and after being directly recognized by other nodes, they may eventually become�� Final consensus result.
4. Smart contracts, smart contracts are based on these credible data that cannot be tampered with, and can automatically execute some pre-defined rules and terms. Taking insurance as an example, if everyone’s information (including medical information and risk occurrence information) is true and credible, then it is easy to automate claims settlement in some standardized insurance products.
In the day-to-day business of insurance companies, although transactions are not as frequent as in the banking and securities industries, the reliance on trusted data continues unabated. Therefore, the author believes that the use of blockchain technology, from the perspective of data management, can effectively help insurance companies improve their risk management capabilities. Specifically, it is mainly divided into the risk management of policyholders and the risk supervision of insurance companies.
㈢ Is the so-called block chain true?
This kind of looks unreliable, from academic From the perspective of interpretation, blockchain is a new application mode of computer technology such as distributed data storage, point-to-point transmission, consensus mechanism, and encryption algorithm. Blockchain is essentially a decentralized database.
For example, if you are a woman, every time your boyfriend says something nasty to you or promises to buy something for you, you immediately record it and send it to you and all his girlfriends, classmates, Colleagues, as well as various groups and circles of friends, so that he can no longer deny, this is called blockchain.
The core advantage of blockchain technology is decentralization. By using data encryption, timestamps, distributed consensus and economic incentives, it can realize decentralized credit-based systems in a distributed system where nodes do not need to trust each other. Peer-to-peer transactions, coordination and collaboration, thus providing solutions to the problems of high cost, inefficiency and insecure data storage that are prevalent in centralized institutions.
The application fields of blockchain include digital currency, token, finance, anti-counterfeiting traceability, privacy protection, supply chain, entertainment, etc. With the popularity of blockchain and Bitcoin, many related top domain names have been registered , had a relatively large impact on the domain name industry.
㈣ What exactly is blockchain, is it illegal?
Blockchain is a public ledger, you can’t say that your natural gas is illegal or your chopsticks are illegal because they Just a tool
Chinese Mahjong: the world’s earliest blockchain project
A first initiates an application, I want to play mahjong and set up a mahjong board, which is equivalent to creating a block, this block will It is broadcasted to B, C, D, A, B, C, D…
In the process of playing mahjong, the above four people continue to draw and play cards. This can be understood as mining, and what is used to mine mine? The mahjong machine can be understood as a mining machine. These four people are the so-called miners. These four miners can collide with any correct card from the 144 mahjongs. We can understand these 144 mahjongs as a series of hashes. Value (number), the process of winning the card is called computing power, until the card is lost, which means that the correct hash value is collided, and the reward can be obtained. Each person pays the corresponding chips to C, and the reward is placed in the blockchain. It is bitcoin or other virtual currency.
Why did the other three people give C a reward on their own initiative? That’s because they all automatically reached a consensus that C did win. Everyone recorded the account, including the family members who were sitting next to buying horses. They wanted to deny it. No, otherwise, if it is spread that this character is not good, no one will play with him anymore, after all, the circle is very important.
Let’s take a closer look. When everyone reaches a consensus, we can’t see any intermediaries or third parties coming out to judge that C has won, and the rewards you give to C do not need to be transferred to C through a third party. They are all direct point-to-point transactions. The first process is decentralization. The players (miners) each recorded the record of the first round. Bing Dahu drew 13 yi, and B ganged Jia Dongfeng. After the recording was completed, a complete block was generated. Remember, this is only the first round. In the entire blockchain, this is just one node. After the 8 rounds mentioned at the beginning, that is, 8 nodes (blocks), and the 8 blocks are connected together. A complete ledger is formed, which is the blockchain. Because everyone has one of this ledger, it is a distributed ledger. The purpose is to prevent someone from tampering with the records. At the end, it is clear who wins and who loses.
㈤ What are the application examples of the blockchain?
1. Judicial depository evidence
On September 18, 2018, Hangzhou Internet Court was officially launched on the chain. Become the first court in the world to use blockchain for trial.
It is understood that the complainant can submit the contract, rights protection process, service process details and other electronic evidence online through the online appeal portal, and the notary office, judicial appraisal center, CA/RA agency, court and other on-chain nodes. Come to jointly witness and jointly endorse, and provide one-stop service for the plaintiff. Zhejiang Hangzhou InterconnectionThe Internet Court issued a public judgment on a case of infringement of the right to disseminate information on the Internet, and for the first time confirmed the legal validity of electronic data stored using blockchain technology.
2. Logistics field
At the beginning of 2018, Cainiao and Tmall International jointly announced that they have enabled blockchain technology to track, upload and verify the logistics of cross-border imported goods. link information.
After all nodes of the logistics chain are on the blockchain, the goods can be traced from manufacturers to consumers, forming a complete chain; the more links the goods are missing, the more fake and inferior goods will be exposed Product is more likely.
3. Electronic invoices
On August 10, 2018, Shenzhen Guomao Revolving Restaurant issued the first blockchain electronic invoice in the country. It is understood that this block issued The chain electronic invoice is led by the Shenzhen Municipal Taxation Bureau, and Tencent provides the underlying technology and capabilities.
Different from traditional e-invoices and simple e-invoices on the chain, this blockchain e-invoice combines “capital flow and invoice flow” into one. The combination of online payment has opened up the whole process of invoice application, invoicing, reimbursement and tax declaration.
There are still many practical applications of blockchain, you can learn more about the relevant information.