- 1 ❶ Who can provide the real address for swiping and signing on behalf of the order
- 2 ❷ The business address is abnormal and the Bureau of Industry and Commerce asks to sign one after on-site inspection The list was then taken to the actual office to take a photo. Does this count as filing a case? Is it necessary to pay a fine?
- 3 ❸ I have already submitted a UK visa and found that the delivery address is different from the appointment address. Can I pass it?
- 4 ❹ About mailing address signature
- 5 ❺ Is the address for signing the contract valid?
- 6 ❻ How to fill in the bitcoin address
- 7 ❼ How to generate bitcoin addresses with different lengths
- 8 ❽ How to get bitcoin wallet address
- 9 ❾ Why there must be a place for signing a contract
- 10 ❿ The delivery address is written by myself, but why is it signed by others?
❶ Who can provide the real address for swiping and signing on behalf of the order
Our team can do this
❷ The business address is abnormal and the Bureau of Industry and Commerce asks to sign one after on-site inspection The list was then taken to the actual office to take a photo. Does this count as filing a case? Is it necessary to pay a fine?
The industry and commerce announced that the address of the company is abnormal. Taking a photo is not considered a case on file. Generally, you do not need to pay a fine. This is the procedure that should be done to remove the abnormal address of the enterprise.
❸ I have already submitted a UK visa and found that the delivery address is different from the appointment address. Can I pass it?
This will not have any effect. There is no consular division for the UK visa on the home page. Chinese citizens can go to any UK visa center in China to submit their documents. If you choose the wrong visa center, you can make amendments on the application form, and then sign and submit it to the visa center.
❹ About mailing address signature
About telegraphic transfer—Telegraphic Transfer T/T
Telegraphic transfer is the application of the remitter by the remittance bank A remittance settlement method in which a telegram or telex (Tested Cable/Telex) or via SWIFT is sent to a foreign country to enter the bank and instruct it to pay a certain amount to the recipient.
Wire transfers use telegrams and telex as settlement tools, which are safe, fast, and cost-effective. Since the transmission direction of telegrams and telexes is the same as the flow of funds, telegraphic transfers belong to Shunhui.
T/T is a remittance method that is widely used. The remittance bank will send a telegram or telex to the remittance bank, and the remittance bank will send a telegraphic transfer notice to the payee. After receiving the notice, the payee will go to the bank to pay, and the bank will release the payment. The notice will be sent to the remittance bank, and the remittance bank will send the remitter receipt of telegraphic transfer.
When making a wire transfer, the remitter shall fill in the remittance application form, and indicate in the application form that the wire transfer T/T method is adopted. At the same time, remit the remittance and the required expenses, and obtain a telegraphic transfer receipt. After the remittance bank receives the remittance application, in order to prevent delays or unexpected losses of remittance funds due to errors in the application, the remittance bank should carefully review the application and contact the remitter in time for any unclear points.
When the remittance bank handles the telegraphic transfer, it will issue a payment instruction to the receiving bank by telegram or telex according to the content of the remittance application. The content of the message mainly includes: remittance amount and currency, beneficiary name, address or account number, remitter name, address, postscript, position payment method, remittance bank name or SWIFT address, etc. In order for the remitting bank to confirm that the content of the message was indeed sent by the remitting bank, the remitting bank must add the test key agreed upon by both banks before the text.
After receiving the telegram or telex, the remitting bank will check whether the secret key is in agreement. If they match, a telegraphic transfer notice will be drawn up to notify the payee to withdraw the money. The payee takes the notice in duplicate to withdraw money from the remittance bank, and after signing and stamping the recipient’s receipt, the remittance bank will release the remittance with it. In practice, if the beneficiary has an account with the inward bank, the inward bank often does not issue a remittance advice, but only collects the money into the beneficiary’s account by the telegram, and then gives the beneficiary a receipt notice, and also A receipt is not required to be signed by the recipient. Finally, the remitting bank will send the debit advice (Debit Advice) to the remitting bank.
The telegraphic fee in the wire transfer shall be borne by the remitter, and the bank generally handles the wire transfer business on the same day, and does not occupy the remittance funds in the postal process. Remittance, mostly by wire transfer.
About the electric discharge:
1) Some are abbreviated as TLX, and some are abbreviated as T/R (another: T/R also refers to trucking ton fare, trailer Charges)
2) Telegraphic release: The forwarder or shipping company that should issue or have issued the original B/L, according to the requirements of the shipper or forwarder, will not issue the original B/L or take back the original B/L that has been issued at POL. L, notify the Delivery Agent by E-MAIL or FAX or Telex, Telegram, etc. to place the goods to the Consignee on B/L or the person who ordered the shipper (under to order B/L)
3) The shipper applies for telex delivery , usually require it to issue the company’s original letter of guarantee or endorse it on the relevant B/L COPY (MEMO-B/L). The contents of the letter of guarantee usually include: shipper’s name, voyage NO. B/L NO. Sailing date (the date of sailing) and the unconditional disclaimer of the freight forwarder.
4) Remember: If the original B/L is signed to the shipper, the shipper will apply for tele-release, and the full set of original B/L must be returned.
5) After agreeing to the release, some will issue a letter of release, and some will give a release number (like a password, which is Arabic numerals or English letters).
6) Do L/C (with L/C as the payment terms), or B/L as the order form (that is, the Consignee column on B/L does not fill in the consignee’s Business Name, (also called Complet)e or Full Name), and displayed as “order” or “order of shipper” or “order of XXX Bank CO” or “order of XXX CO”, in short, as long as you see the word order in Consignee) or blank B/L (i.e. the Consignee column in B/L is left blank) or the payment terms are Collection (collection (Note: collect means “pay on arrival”)) (collection includes D/P=Doc Against Payment and D/A = Doc Against Acceptance), the above four situations are not allowed to do electric discharge in principle.
7) PP (prepaid . prepaid freight) is usually used for battery down.
8) If the goods are in bad condition, please remember: Mate’s Remark.
9) Electric release date: usually before the cargo (container) arrives at the port of destination.
10) There is often this sentence on the application for electric discharge: Please kindly release cargo to Consignee here – below without presentation. (“Submit, present”) of the orginal XXX Bill of Lading. (XXX represents Carrier’s Name or freight forwarder Name) (please send the consignee to the consignee specified below without submitting the original B/L of the company of ×××)
11) The delivery of the goods is not without B/L. Just not the original B/L (if it has been issued, it must be taken back in full) and the B/L COPY or MEMO pieces are issued. In order to reflect the relevant situation of the goods in detail, it is the best way to use B/L COPY pieces.
12) When using the electric discharger, it is usually necessary to charge the customer a telephony discharge fee: about USD 15.
The following are several situations for electric discharge:
ⅰ) No B/L (H-B/L, M-B/L are not signed to customers)
Customer supplement Replenishment of material and freight forwarder (indicate “to do electric discharge”) Carrier (inform the other party about the relevant situation in the form of B/L sample)
Carrier issues a single MB/L piece of freight forwarding MB/L COPY Customer, after the customer confirms OK ,: Application form for customer telex release, forwarder telex release application form Carrier. If Carrier agrees to telex, usually after the cargo is loaded: Carrier dispatches the telegram or dispatches the dispatcher to the shipper or Consignee
After the cargo arrives at the port of destination, Consignee dispatches the telegram or Report the telephone number and ask Carrier to pick up the goods at the agent of the destination port. This situation is more common when the destination port is in Southeast Asia, because the B/L transfer (mailing) is slow due to the fast discharge of electricity. (The ship arrives at the unloading port before B/L)
ii) For M-B/L electric discharge, use the agent of the freight forwarder to issue the original H-B/L, which means that the M-B/L electric discharge means The function of M-B/L is replaced by telex and letter (of course it is impossible to sign the original M-B/L order)
The freight forwarder signs the original H-B/L for its customers, and the shipper on H-B/L fills in Customer name, Consignee fills in the name of the customer at the port of destination (ie the real consignee)
On the M-B/L COPY (or MEMO) pieces from Carrier to Forwarder, the shipper fills in the name of the freight forwarder, and Consignee fills in the name of the freight forwarder at the port of destination acting.
The above operation is also possible: after the freight forwarder and its customer have a good order, send the customer back to the shipper column on the H-B/L of Forwarder, change the customer name to the freight forwarder name, and change the Consignee column from the real receipt. The consignor is changed to the agent of the freight forwarder, and other contents remain unchanged (other contents refer to the product name, packaging, number of pieces, POL, POD, Delivery Agent, Gross Weight, Measurement, Cntr No., Seal No., Marks & Nos (marks and marks). ) , Notify, Place of Receipt, Place of Delivery Vessel & Voy No., Shipping on board Date, etc.) After completing these two columns, pass this sheet to Carrier. In the above operation, the freight forwarder passed the list to the carrier, and he himself became the shipper of his own B/L. The D/O will be obtained from the carrier after the number is released)
The H-B/L process is: freight forwarder → customer (departure port) → customer (destination port) → Forwarder’s Agent
(destination port customer delivery For H-B/L, get D/O=Delivery Order from the forwarder’s agency)
Note: If you want to pay the freight on delivery, you must ask the destination port agent to collect the freight before releasing the goods!
In this case, in addition to an agency fee, the shipping company also needs to pay a telex fee (about $15)
“China Unicom” company’s goods to the United States mostly use this situation (it is in the United States Western ports have their own agents)
ⅲ) The agency that uses the freight forwarder for the original MB/L issued by HB/L.
MB/L process: Carrier→Forwarder→Forwarder’s Agent at POD
The agent of the forwarder exchanges the original MB/L for D/O, and the telexing process: Forwarder→Customer (departure)→Customer (purpose port)→Forwarder’s Agent The destination port customer can exchange D/O from the freight forwarder with the telex letter (or telex number).
iv) Double telecine. If the original HB/L and MB/L are not signed, Carrier will inform Forwarder→Forwarder’s Agent→Carrier of the dispatch number it has formulated, and Forwarder will inform shipper→Consignee → Forwarder’s Agent of another telegram number formulated by Forwarder.
a) When the cable is put down, some companies require consignee to hand over the B/L fax in addition to the cable (number) (Forwarder sends this fax to the shipper → consignee in advance). Some Regulations: Consignee can go to the agency to exchange D/O after stamping its official seal on the letter.
b) For H-B/L or M- When B/L is dispatched, it is not without the bill of lading, but usually it is necessary to send out the documents and fax the documents to the relevant parties.
c) After the customer submits the tele-discharge application, Forwarder or Carrier will cover the tele-discharge application. Fax “Telephone Release Chapter” and “Bill of Lading Chapter” to customers, which can simplify the operation.
d) Usually, the freight forwarder will also send a telex release note to its agent (the relevant information is stated above)
e) If you apply to the carrier for the electric discharge, some companies will ask the carrier for a telegram (the content of this report: whether the carrier agrees to the electric discharge and other relevant circumstances).
f) It is possible to call the MB/L electric discharge. Carrier sends a Memo-B/L to Forwarder; forwarder can send Memo-B/L to its customers if HB/L is placed.
g) Abroad → HKG → Pearl River Delta (imported goods):
If the telex is released at the destination, the procedure is: Consignee will go to the destination agency to exchange the original B/L or D for the second journey with the bill of lading for the first journey, that is, the whole bill of lading or fax, and the telex and consignee’s original letter of guarantee. /O, based on this two-way feeder single for customs declaration and commodity inspection, pick up the goods (Note: the telex release here refers to the telex release of the Ocean-B/L large ship bill of lading (the original OB/L is not issued to the customer)
In this case The process of distributing electricity and sending letters and whole B/L pieces is: ocean carrier→Forwarder→shipper(foreign customers) →consignee(destination port customers). L electric discharge, then the electric discharge signal (number) flow is: Ocean carrier → head feeder → shipper → consignee
About the letter of credit:
Letter of Credit (Letter of Credit , referred to as L/C) is a kind of issuing bank according to the request and application of the applicant (importer) to the beneficiary (exporter) with a certain amount, with the draft and export documents within a certain period, at the designated Written guarantee for payment at the location. The letter of credit is the payment commitment made by the issuing bank to the beneficiary, so that the beneficiary has the guarantee of receiving payment, so it is a payment method that is beneficial to the beneficiary. However, the beneficiary can only provide payment according to the letter of credit. The payment can only be obtained when the documents required by the letter of credit are received. Therefore, the letter of credit is a conditional payment commitment of the bank.
The opening of a letter of credit generally requires the following steps:
(1) The buyer and the seller agree to Sign a formal sales contract for the goods to be traded, and indicate in the contract that the settlement is by letter of credit;
(2) The importer fills in the application for issuance of L/C according to the contract, together with a copy of the contract and the “Import Payment Record Form” ” (if necessary) to the local foreign exchange designated bank, and at the same time Deposit the funds to be paid externally under the letter of credit in the bank’s margin account in full, and apply to the bank for opening a letter of credit;
(3) If only part of the security deposit can be deposited, the insufficient part may Apply to the bank for a standby loan; sign a standby loan contract with the bank;
(4) The issuing bank opens a formal letter of credit according to the content of the application, and informs the original letter of credit through the appropriate foreign agent bank. The exporter, at the same time, hand over a copy of the L/C to the importer;
(5) The bank will charge a certain percentage of the handling fee to the L/C applicant according to the amount and duration of the L/C.
Although letter of credit is a major payment method in international trade, it has no uniform format. However, its main contents are basically the same, including:
1. Description of the letter of credit itself: the type, nature, serial number, amount, date of issuance, validity period and expiry place of the letter of credit, the name of the parties and address, whether the right to use this letter of credit can be transferred, etc.;
2. The drawer, payer, time limit and terms of the draft, etc. of the draft;
3. The name, quality, specification and quantity of the goods , packaging, transportation signs, unit price, etc.;
4. Requirements for transportation: shipping period, port of shipment, port of destination, mode of transportation, whether the freight should be prepaid, whether it can be shipped in batches and transshipment, etc.;
5. Requirements for documents: the type, name, content and number of documents, etc.;
6. Special clauses: According to the changes in the political, economic and trade situation of the importing country or the needs of each specific business, different clauses can be made. Provisions;
7. The Issuing Bank’s Responsibility Statement to the Beneficiary and the Holder of the Bill of Exchange to Guarantee Payment.
The letter of credit is generally transferred or notified to the exporting enterprise by the issuing bank through the bank (advising bank) where the exporting enterprise is located. After a foreign customer opens a letter of credit, the exporter should carefully check and review the letter of credit. The basic requirement of the review is that the content of the letter of credit is consistent with the contract. The content of the audit varies from contract to contract, and generally includes the following points:
(1). Whether the L/C expires in my country or in the location of the issuing bank, if the expiry location is abroad, the exporter will have to take a greater risk, which is generally not acceptable.
(2). Whether the amount and payment currency on the letter of credit conform to the contract.
(3). Shipping period and validity period, the shipping period on the letter of credit should in principle be consistent with the contract, and the validity period should generally be at an appropriate interval with the shipping period.
(4). transshipment andFor bulk shipments, the L/C should generally require the L/C to allow transshipment and partial shipments, or make no provision for this. If the contract provides otherwise, the relevant provisions of the L/C should be consistent with the contract.
(5) Check whether the names and addresses of the applicant and beneficiary are correct, so as to prevent the wrong shipment of goods and affect the collection of foreign exchange.
(6). The payment term in the letter of credit must be consistent with the contract.
In addition, according to the terms of the contract, it is necessary to comprehensively review whether the name of the goods, specifications, quantity, packaging, unit price, shipment period, port of destination, and insurance coverage in the certificate are consistent with the contract, and whether there are special clauses added to the certificate. Review whether the certificate is irrevocable, whether other reservations or restrictive clauses are attached to the contract, and whether there are any special requirements for the contents of the invoice, packing list, weight list, certificate of origin, inspection certificate, etc.
The main types of letters of credit:
A. Classification by basic nature
a. According to whether the beneficiary is required to submit documents, it is divided into documentary credit and bare credit
Documentary Credit (Documentary Credit) is a letter of credit in which the issuing bank pays against a documentary bill of exchange or simply against a document. Document means a transport document that represents the goods or certifies that the goods have been delivered. Such as bill of lading, rail waybill, air waybill, etc. It usually also includes commercial documents such as invoices and insurance policies, and documentary credits generally used in international trade.
Clean Credit (Clean Credit) is a letter of credit in which the issuing bank pays only by a draft without documents.
b. According to the responsibility of the issuing bank, it can be divided into irrevocable letter of credit and revocable letter of credit. With the consent of the confirming bank (if any), the issuing bank shall not unilaterally modify or revoke the stipulations and commitments of the letter of credit.
The letter of credit does not indicate whether it can be revoked or not, that is, it is an irrevocable letter of credit. The letter of credit used in international trade is basically an irrevocable letter of credit.
A revocable letter of credit means that the issuing bank has the right to amend or revoke it at any time, but if the beneficiary has obtained the guarantee of negotiation, acceptance or deferred payment in accordance with the provisions of the letter of credit, the bank’s revocation or amendment is invalid.
c. According to whether another bank guarantees the letter of credit, it can be divided into confirmed letter of credit and unconfirmed letter of credit
Confirmed letter of credit (Confirmed Letter of Credit) refers to the issuing bank In a letter of credit issued, another bank guarantees that the payment obligation will be fulfilled for the documents that comply with the terms of the letter of credit. The bank that confirms the letter of credit is called the confirming bank, and the confirming bank bears the same primary payment responsibility as the issuing bank.
When the credit of the issuing bank is good and the transaction amount is not large, the unconfirmed letter of credit is generally used. Chinese banks do not issue letters of credit that require another bank to confirm, so Chinese import enterprises usually do not accept the requirements of issuing confirmed letters of credit.
d. According to the letter of credit payment method, it is divided into four ways: sight payment letter of credit, long-term payment letter of credit, acceptance credit and negotiation letter of credit
The most commonly used in international trade is negotiation credit Negotiation Credit refers to a letter of credit that allows the beneficiary to negotiate by presentation to a designated bank or any bank. Usually, under the condition that the documents match, the bank will immediately advance the payment to the beneficiary after deducting the advance interest and handling fee. Negotiable L/C can be divided into open negotiable L/C and restricted negotiable L/C. The beneficiary of the former can choose a bank as the negotiating bank, and the latter is the issuing bank to designate a bank as the negotiating bank in the L/C. . The issuing bank is responsible for payment to the negotiating bank.
Both the sight payment L/C and the long-term payment L/C clearly stipulate a bank as the paying bank in the L/C, do not require the beneficiary to issue a draft, and pay only on the basis of the submitted documents. The acceptance letter of credit stipulates that the issuing bank or the designated accepting bank shall accept the usd draft issued by the beneficiary. For the above three letters of credit, whether a bank is willing to negotiate has nothing to do with the issuing bank.
All letters of credit must clearly state which method it applies to.
B. Classification of Additional Properties
a. Transferable Letter of Credit
The letter of credit is marked with “Transferable”, and the beneficiary has the right to transfer the whole or part of the letter of credit to one or more third parties Three (ie the second beneficiary) use. The beneficiary of a negotiable letter of credit is generally the middleman, and the second beneficiary is the actual supplier.
The beneficiary may request the authorized bank (transferring bank) in the letter of credit to issue a new letter to the second beneficiary, and the original issuing bank will be responsible for payment of the new letter. The terms of the original letter remain unchanged, but the amount and unit price of the letter of credit can be reduced, the validity period and shipment period can be advanced, the insurance coverage can be increased, and the applicant can become the original beneficiary. A transferable letter of credit can only be transferred once, i.e. the second beneficiary cannot�� then transfer to a new beneficiary.
In the process of use, after the second beneficiary presents the documents to the transfer bank, the first beneficiary has the right to replace the invoices and drafts of the beneficiary of the second certificate with his own invoices and drafts in order to obtain the original certificate and the new certificate. difference between certificates.
b. Revolving Credit
After the letter of credit is used in whole or in part, the amount can be resumed until the specified number of times or the total accumulated amount is reached. This kind of letter of credit is suitable for long-term contracts with balanced supply in batches and foreign exchange settlement in batches, so that the importer can reduce the procedures, fees and deposits levied, so that the exporter can not only receive the guarantee of the full transaction payment, but also reduce the number of notices and deposits. Approval procedures and fees.
The circulation mode of the revolving letter of credit can be divided into time circulation and amount circulation.
There are three circulation conditions for a revolving letter of credit:
(l) Automatic circulation. That is to say, the letter of credit can be resumed in the prescribed manner without notice from the issuing bank.
(2) Semi-automatic cycle. After use, the issuing bank can resume the use without giving notice of cessation of circulation within the specified time limit.
(3) Non-automatic cycle. After each period of use, you must wait for the issuing bank’s notification before resuming use.
c. Usance Credit Payable at Sight
The letter of credit stipulates: “Usance Credit Payable at Sight shall be paid at sight, and all discounting and acceptance fees shall be borne by the buyer.” This letter of credit, The beneficiary issues a forward draft, but it is equivalent to a sight draft when negotiating, so it does not increase the burden of discounted interest. For the issuing applicant, the financing convenience of deferred payment is obtained, and the preferential discount rate of the issuing bank is used.
d. Letter of Credit with T/T Reimbursement
It is stipulated in the L/C at sight that the negotiating bank may notify the issuing bank by telex after negotiation, requesting to open the letter of credit. The issuing bank immediately transfers the payment to the negotiating bank by telegraphic transfer. This method enables the exporter to reduce the number of days for deducting the discount interest when negotiating, but the issuing bank pays in advance without examination, so the issuing bank often appoints a reliable negotiating bank in the letter of credit, which is a restriction Negotiate letter of credit.
e. Back to Back Credit
It means that the beneficiary uses the original certificate as collateral and requires the bank to open another letter of credit with similar content based on the original certificate. Back-to-back letters of credit are usually applied for by middlemen and issued to actual suppliers. It is used in a similar way to a negotiable letter of credit, except that the issuing bank of the original letter of credit does not authorize the transfer to the beneficiary and is therefore not responsible for the new letter of credit.
The beneficiary of a back-to-back letter of credit can be foreign or domestic.
f. Reciprocal Credit
refers to two letters of credit that restrict each other, the import and export parties are the applicant and beneficiary of the letter, and the banks of the two parties are the issuing bank and the notifying bank. Row. This kind of letter of credit is generally used for compensation trade, barter trade and foreign processing and assembly business.
Usually, it is indicated in the L/C issued in advance, and the L/C will take effect only after the L/C is issued.
I think the above should be enough, right?
❺ Is the address for signing the contract valid?
The address is incorrect, but the identity information is true and generally valid.
The above analysis is for reference, and accurate help is needed. It is recommended to bring materials and find a lawyer for specific communication. After the consultation, please evaluate and end the consultation in time.
On the right side of the phone, only the Beijing area can be used for consultation. If you have the intention of entrusting an agent in other places, you can also contact us. Please explain the purpose after connecting.
❻ How to fill in the bitcoin address
You can download a bitcoin wallet, or register on the trading platform. Everyone’s Bitcoin address is unique. Bitcoin transfers can be made with an address. Download the bitcoin client or bitcoin wallet, and you can also register your own bitcoin address. A Bitcoin address is a 26- to 34-bit string of letters and numbers that looks a bit garbled.
A bitcoin address is your personal bitcoin account, which is equivalent to your bank card number. Anyone can transfer bitcoin to you through your bitcoin address. The red box location is the Bitcoin address. You can see it when you log in to my bitcoin wallet.
(6) btc single signature address, many signature addresses Extended reading:
The concept of Bitcoin (BitCoin) was originally proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009 , the open source software designed and released according to the ideas of Satoshi Nakamoto and the P2P network built on it. Bitcoin is a P2P form of digital currency. Peer-to-peer transmission means a decentralized payment system.
Unlike most currencies, Bitcoin is not issued by a specific currency institution. It is generated by a large number of calculations according to a specific algorithm. The Bitcoin economy uses a distributed database composed of many nodes in the entire P2P network to confirm and noteRecord all transaction behaviors, and use cryptographic design to ensure the security of all aspects of currency circulation. The decentralized nature of P2P and the algorithm itself can ensure that the value of the currency cannot be artificially manipulated by mass-producing Bitcoin. The cryptography-based design allows Bitcoin to be transferred or paid only by the true owner. This also ensures the anonymity of currency ownership and circulation transactions. The biggest difference between Bitcoin and other virtual currencies is that its total amount is very limited and it has a strong scarcity. The currency system used to have no more than 10.5 million for 4 years, after which the total number will be permanently capped at 21 million.
Bitcoins can be cashed out and can be exchanged into the currencies of most countries. Users can use bitcoin to buy some virtual items, such as clothes, hats, equipment, etc. in online games. As long as someone accepts it, they can also use bitcoin to buy real-life items.
❼ How to generate bitcoin addresses with different lengths
1. First of all, you need to know The concept of public key and private key (you don’t need to read this part if you already understand it)
Public key and private key are nouns in asymmetric encryption in the branch of modern cryptography. Usually, public key is used to encrypt information, and private key is used to encrypt information. Decrypt the information, why do it? Because when you watch TV dramas, the telegrams are all symmetric encryption, and the shortcomings of this encryption method are obvious. If someone knows the key and encryption method, they can decrypt according to the reverse of the encryption method. It was not until asymmetric encryption that the situation changed. The public key is the key that can be disclosed to the whole world. For example, when you communicate with Google, use the 1024-bit public key given by Google to encrypt, and send it to Google. Only he has it. The corresponding private key can only be decrypted by him, thus ensuring communication security.
2. Bitcoin mainly uses ECDSA, which is the elliptic curve signature algorithm. This algorithm has two characteristics. Important
a. As long as you know the private key, you can calculate the corresponding public key;
b. You can use the public key to calculate whether you signed something that you signed with the private key;
3. The knowledge is ready, let’s talk about Bitcoin transactions. Bitcoin actually has no wallet, only transaction bills. The entire Bitcoin is a lot of transaction bills
Bill 1 From A to B Transferred XXX Bitcoins
Bill 2 From B to C and D Transferred XXX Bitcoins
Bill 3 From C to E Transferred XXX Bitcoins
. . . . Anyone who downloads the client can receive all the bills from the day Bitcoin was established, so as long as all the bills are downloaded, they will naturally know how much money should be left in each account (think carefully here)
4. The bitcoin account is the public key I just mentioned.
5. Now I will post a bitcoin bill, here is the core part! ! ! Each bill is a piece of data. After you sign it, it will be sent to the entire network. Reverse the data structure into an easy-to-understand Chinese explanation as follows:
FROM (who sent it, including two parts)
Previous tx: The id of the bill of the money you want to spend, that is, any money you spend should be transferred to you, you need to show the id of that bill
scriptSig: you The signature for this transaction is to hash the list with your private key, only you can do this hash
TO (who accepts, including two parts)
Value: how much to send
scriptPubKey: The public key of the other party, the bitcoin account is a public key
6. After you sign the order, start sending it to the whole network. How to send it? Bitcoin communication is not so complicated. You can compare it to an IRC channel, but unlike ordinary “IRC”, any client is an “IRC” server. When you start the client, it will receive surrounding The client address with the public IP is the “server” list, and this list is constantly refreshed, all of which are other bitcoin users, so when you shout a word in this “IRC”, people around you will hear, and spread around the world.
7. After the signature is sent to the world, all clients who receive the order will verify whether your order is correct, for example, it will verify your signature, whether it is sent by you, will verify you Whether you have that much money (you can calculate how much money you have to spend based on historical transactions)
If everyone has calculated this transaction, then basically the transfer is successful.
8. In fact, the other party has accepted bitcoin now, but if he wants to spend it, he must have the private key corresponding to that address (public key). So he can fill in the FROM header of a list, Previous tx is the serial number of the transaction just now, and scriptSig fills in the hash signed by his private key
and so on. . .
❽ How to get bitcoin wallet address
It is very difficult nowDifficult, go to the official website to download the program and do it yourself, but it may take several years. The second method is to buy it. Now it is about 18 dollars a piece, less than 100 yuan. Bitcoin’s largest trading site Mt.Gox. On the official website of Bitcoin, there is a paper by Satoshi Nakamoto detailing the technical principles of Bitcoin. In short, Bitcoin is based on a set of cryptographic codes and is generated through complex algorithms; anyone can download and run Bitcoin software to participate in the creation of Bitcoin; Bitcoin uses electronic signatures to achieve circulation and is verified through P2P networks. Repeat consumption.
By 2140, there will be 21 million bitcoins in total. I suggest you still buy it.
“Mining” In 2009, a mysterious hacker named Satoshi Nakomoto pioneered the concept of Bitcoin and described a method of using computer networks to create an unregulated “secret currency”. Unlike other virtual currencies, Bitcoin is not issued by a company or central bank, nor is it tied to any real currency, but can be used to purchase real-world goods and services. Essentially, it can be thought of as a small string of encrypted code that is quickly passed over the Internet and stored in an electronic wallet. Just as P2P networks such as Napster and Skype once threw the music industry and the phone industry into chaos, Bitcoin, which challenges modern monetary finance, is also based on P2P – the same technology we commonly use torrent downloads. The benefit of P2P is to ensure that no institution can manipulate the value of Bitcoin or increase the supply to create inflation. In a huge P2P network, Bitcoin has a special algorithm that generates about 300 per hour. This output is automatically adjusted by the network, because you can’t control most of the network nodes, so you can’t modify the algorithm of each user to Accelerate money production. Figuratively speaking, Bitcoin is “mined” by computers in every corner of the world. If you want to get bitcoins, you just need to install mining software, and your computer will start doing a lot of calculations, which is mining. No matter which computer was used to mine, it was easy to get (50 BTC) in the early days of Bitcoin. Back in January, 50 bitcoins were not worth $15, but on June 9, 1 bitcoin was worth as much as $29.55, and if you traded them out, you could get $1,500 in real money back. But now, mining requires a high-performance computer, and some developers involved say it takes five years for the average laptop to earn 1 bitcoin. Why is this happening? We have to start with the currency itself. Economics tells us that money exists because of transactions. The value of Bitcoin is also in the transaction itself. In order to transfer bitcoins from one account to another, there must be a secure channel. Creating a secure channel requires a lot of energy, so the entire bitcoin user base must reward the coiner (50 bitcoins). In other words, he mined successfully. Mining is essentially the process of creating new blocks (blocks, each containing 50 bitcoins) on the P2P network. In short, the software algorithm determines that it is difficult to create a new block that is recognized by the whole network. If there are more participants, the new block will be generated more slowly. Like mining, the supply dwindles as the most accessible resource is exhausted (assuming no newly discovered deposits) – the algorithm dictates that only 25 bitcoins can be generated per block by 2013, and by 2017 Only 12.5 can be generated, and so on. By 2030, the total number will remain at a plateau of about 21 million. Graphically, this will be a flattening curve. The reality also verifies this. As the value of Bitcoin rises, the number of participants soars and mining becomes more and more difficult. On the forum, miners discuss how to use dry ice, liquid nitrogen to cool computers, increase CPU frequency, speed up mining software, or customize top computer graphics cards and increase network speed to produce more bitcoins. The Guardian reported that someone was too mysterious to mine at home, and even was suddenly attacked by the police, who mistook the person for drug trafficking. Recently, digital security company Symantec discovered a new type of Trojan virus, a malicious program called Coinbit used to steal accounts, allowing hackers to break into users’ Bitcoin wallets and steal their contents. Before the June 19 hacking incident, members of the LulzSec hacker group and the Anonymous team had discovered that there was a better way to mine – using someone else’s computer. These hacker groups are known for mainly relying on botnets for server attacks, and some members have found that some miners are actually using their botnets to mine. These miners are also said to be hackers, who used the botnet to take control of more than 100,000 computers. With the current scale of the network, the efficiency of mining can be greatly improved. It is estimated that 400 to 500 bitcoins are produced every day, and the current value is about more than 8,000 US dollars (as of 2011/6/28, 1 Bitcoin = $16.9). People in the Bitcoin community are divided into two factions, those who deny that botnets are used to mine, and those who say it is a fact, and admit that the operation of botnets has dropped significantly. According to an anonymous source, it is clear that some people think that participating in mining can get higher returns than attacking mining.
❾ Why there must be a place for signing a contract
Because there is a jurisdictional issue in the contract law, once a dispute arises, which court the parties will file a lawsuit in is written in the contract. The place of signing is decided.
Enterprises can also avoid the above problems by signing electronic contracts. By pre-embedding arbitration agreements in contract terms, when disputes arise in contracts, third-party electronic contract platforms can provide one-click arbitration services to help enterprises Safeguard legitimate rights and interests.
❿ The delivery address is written by myself, but why is it signed by others?
In order to save costs
Some sellers use it It’s an empty package
There is only one
Express tracking number
So you don’t need to sign for it
No matter how the seller operates
As long as you see the receipt, just confirm it