Important data stored in blockchain is cleaned up

『One』Blockchain technology can protect your data. Why not store all your data privately, or maybe sell it?

Blockchain technology can protect your data. First, blockchain will facilitate the creation of cleaner and more organized personal data. Secondly, the blockchain will facilitate the emergence of new markets:
1. For example, data markets (this is easier to implement);
2. For example, model markets (this is much more interesting);
3. There may even be an AI market eventually.
Therefore, simple data sharing and new marketplaces, coupled with blockchain data verification, will provide smoother integration, lowering barriers to entry for small businesses and narrowing the competitive advantage of tech giants. In the effort to lower the barriers to entry, two issues are actually addressed, namely providing wider data access and more efficient data monetization mechanisms.
Lianqiao Education Online’s Xueshuo Innovation Blockchain Technology Workstation is the only approved “blockchain technology major” pilot project carried out by the School Planning and Construction Development Center of the Ministry of Education of China. workstation. The professional station is based on providing students with diversified growth paths, promotes the reform of the combination of professional degree research, production, study and research, and builds an applied and compound talent training system.

『Ⅱ』 Is the content stored in each block of the blockchain the same? If not, what if a block of the blockchain is broken?

The information of each block of the blockchain is different, and the time and recorded data of each block are different. You can think of the blockchain as an accounting book. Every once in a while, someone will write all the transaction information on the blockchain network to one page of the ledger, page by page, and record the areas in sequence according to time. All transactions on the blockchain network.
On the other hand, all nodes participating in the network (computers in short) will store a copy of this ledger and update it in real time. Even if one node fails, it will not affect the blockchain.

『三』What is the relationship between blockchain and big data storage

The relationship between blockchain and big data storage is as follows:
1. Data security: area Blockchain allows data to flow with real “assurance”. With its trustworthiness, security and immutability, blockchain allows more data to be liberated. A typical case is used to illustrate how the blockchain promotes the generation of gene sequencing big data. Blockchain sequencing can use private keys to limit access rights, thereby circumventing legal restrictions on individuals’ access to genetic data, and using distributed computing resources to complete sequencing services at low cost. The security of the blockchain makes sequencing an industrialized solution, enabling sequencing on a global scale, thereby driving the massive growth of data.
Second, open data sharing: blockchain guarantees data privacy
The government holds a large amount of high-density, high-value data, such as medical data, population data, etc. The opening of government data is the general trend, which will have an immeasurable impetus for the development of the entire economy and society. However, the main difficulty and challenge of data opening is how to open data while protecting personal privacy. Blockchain-based data desensitization technology can ensure data privacy and provide a solution for data opening under privacy protection. Data desensitization technology mainly uses encryption algorithms such as hash processing. For example, the Enigma system based on blockchain technology operates data without accessing the original data, which can protect the privacy of data and eliminate information security problems in data sharing. For example, company employees can confidently open access to their salary information and jointly calculate the average salary within the group. Each participant was informed about his relative position in the group, but nothing about the compensation of the other members.
Schematic diagram of data HASH desensitization processing
Three, data storage: blockchain is a non-tamperable, full-history, strongly endorsed database storage technology
Blockchain technology, through the network All nodes participate in the calculation together and verify the authenticity of their information with each other to reach a consensus of the whole network. It can be said that the blockchain technology is a specific database technology. So far, our big data is still at a very basic stage. The trusted blockchain data based on the consensus of the whole network is immutable and full of history, and it also enables the quality of the data to obtain an unprecedented strong trust endorsement. It also brings the development of the database into a new era.
Fourth, data analysis: blockchain ensures data security
Data analysis is the core of realizing the value of data. When conducting data analysis, how to effectively protect personal privacy and prevent core data leakage has become the primary consideration. For example, with the popularization of fingerprint data analysis applications and genetic data detection and analysis methods,�� More and more people are worried that once personal health data is leaked, it may lead to serious consequences. Blockchain technology can prevent such situations through multi-signature private keys, encryption technology, and secure multi-party computing technology. When the data is hashed and placed on the blockchain, using digital signature technology, only those authorized people can access the data. The private key ensures data privacy and can be shared with authorized research institutions. The data is uniformly stored on the decentralized blockchain, and data analysis is performed without accessing the original data, which can not only protect the privacy of the data, but also safely provide it to global scientific research institutions and doctors to share, as a whole human being The basic health database will bring great convenience to solving sudden and difficult diseases in the future.
V. Data circulation: Blockchain protects data-related rights and interests
For individuals or institutions, valuable data assets can be registered with the blockchain, and the transaction records are recognized by the whole network and transparent , traceable, clarifies the source, ownership, use rights and circulation paths of big data assets, which is of great value to data asset transactions.
On the one hand, blockchain can eliminate the threat of intermediary copying data, which is conducive to the establishment of a trusted data asset trading environment. Data is a very special commodity, which is fundamentally different from ordinary commodities, mainly due to the characteristics of unclear ownership and “owning after seeing and copying”, which also determines that the transaction method using traditional commodity intermediaries cannot meet the needs of data. Share, exchange and trade. Because the intermediary center has the conditions and ability to copy and save all the data that flows through it, this is extremely unfair to the data producers. This threat cannot be eliminated only by promise, and the existence of this threat has also become a huge obstacle to the flow of data. Based on the decentralized blockchain, it can eliminate the threat of data copying by intermediary centers and protect the legitimate rights and interests of data owners.
On the other hand, the blockchain provides a traceable path, which can effectively solve the problem of data confirmation. The blockchain participates in the calculation and recording of data through multiple nodes participating in the calculation in the network, and mutually verifies the validity of its information, which can not only prevent information forgery, but also provide a traceable path. By stringing the transaction information of each block, a complete list of transaction details is formed, and the ins and outs of each transaction are very clear and transparent. In addition, when people have doubts about the “value” of a certain block, they can easily go back to historical transaction records to determine whether the value is correct, and whether the value has been tampered with or recorded incorrectly.
Everything is guaranteed on the blockchain, and big data will naturally become more active.
The tokens of crowdfunding projects on the Biying China platform are developed based on blockchain technology, and relevant information will be recorded on the blockchain.

『4』How to store information on the blockchain

How to store information on the blockchain: call the API provided by the blockchain platform

Generally, blockchain platforms will provide corresponding interfaces, such as RPC, JSON-RPC, HTTP, etc. Of course, different platforms have different degrees of friendliness.

Some companies specializing in APIs, such as BlockCypher, can provide friendly Calling the interface, it is not very convenient to write the answer on the mobile phone, search it.

As for the stored content, add a point, the file hash record chain, in addition to the conventional cloud storage, there are also blockchain-based file entities. storage solutions, such as ipfs, storej, etc.

“Wu” the magical blockchain that keeps data forever

At the beginning of this year, the heat wave of Bitcoin has not completely passed, and the other A “torrent” could not stop the fire. This is the blockchain technology that has recently become popular in the fields of finance and insurance, and even in the stock trading and voting industries.

To talk about the recent hot spots of various industries, this technology must be counted as one. According to the data: Up to now, the largest investment projects in the world in 2016 are related to blockchain, and the investment amount has reached 55 million US dollars and 60 million US dollars respectively, and the largest domestic blockchain project is also at the end of September this year. Also announced with an investment size of over $20 million.

First of all, it is a new application model that integrates distributed data storage, point-to-point transmission, consensus mechanism, encryption algorithm and other computer technologies. As we all know, Bitcoin, as a universal encrypted Internet currency, is developed based on blockchain technology, and the support of smart contracts on the blockchain makes the wider point-to-point transfer of digital assets other than Bitcoin a reality. It is not difficult to understand why blockchain technology has become compelling as the cornerstone of the Internet of Value.

So why is blockchain so attractive? If we say that today’s Internet is the point of information through TCP/IP protocol,The point-to-point transmission is the Internet of Information. Then, the point-to-point transfer of value (such as electronic currency, electronic assets, etc.) away from third parties is the technical possibility provided by blockchain technology.

In layman’s terms, blockchain is a decentralized distributed accounting system. The nodes in the system do not need to trust each other, and maintain a ledger together through a unified consensus mechanism, and each node has a complete data record. Blockchain Blockchain, block transactions are connected together through cryptographic algorithms, making the entire ledger open, transparent, traceable, and immutable.

Comparing with traditional third-party institutional credit transactions, the process of blockchain in digital payment can be described as the following diagrams:

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『Lu』How to prevent tampering of the initial data of the blockchain

The existence of data fraud and untrustworthy data has brought serious problems to many application scenarios such as financial supervision and risk control. It is also becoming a major obstacle hindering the large-scale interconnection, sharing and sharing of data. The authenticity and credibility of data has long affected all areas of society, and this impact will be more prominent in the era of artificial intelligence that relies more on data.

Data fraud may occur in any link. Among them, fraud during data storage is often simpler: because under the existing data storage technology, data owners, managers or trusted storage parties have the ability to unilaterally tamper or delete data arbitrarily.

Since an important reason for untrustworthy data is that one party can tamper and delete data without authorization, how to avoid this problem has naturally attracted a lot of attention in the industry. The birth of blockchain and decentralized storage technology has played a certain role in curbing data tampering, and has also achieved preliminary verification in the market.

Many companies have begun to try to use blockchain to store data, for example, in scenarios such as cargo traceability. The practice is often to write important data directly into the block. This simple and rude approach does solve the need for data protection from deletion and modification, and then satisfies the credible sharing of some data, but there are many problems:

First of all, it is impossible to store massive data: it is not suitable for the block Store big data including multimedia data, otherwise the block size is difficult to control, making the scalability of the blockchain worse. This leads to the need to filter the original data in the business, and only select a small amount of necessary data to store in the block, but this will reduce the richness of trusted data.

The second is the low data access efficiency: first, due to the existence of the packaging process, blockchain data storage is generally not used for high-speed data writing. Secondly, due to the traversal data reading method, the blockchain cannot support fast indexing, let alone SQL.

Again, the data maintenance efficiency is low: the blockchain does not support the deletion and modification of individual historical data due to its sequential reference characteristics (unless the entire chain is regenerated, but this is not the case with the blockchain). encouraged behavior). It should be noted here: “to prevent unilateral tampering” and “completely incapable of deletion” are two completely different things. The former is a technical means to ensure mutual trust, but the latter may belong to the loss of a necessary function point.

Finally, there is the risk of data loss: this risk only refers to the PoW blockchain system that adopts the longest chain principle of Nakamoto Consensus. In this type of blockchain, when a chain fork occurs, the longest (or heaviest) chain branch will be kept and other branches will be discarded, which makes the data in the block actually exist forever and is “subverted” ”, the risk of being discarded. The existence of attacks such as selfish mining will exacerbate this risk. This is unacceptable in data storage applications.

Because of the above reasons, the direct use of traditional blockchain for data storage obviously cannot meet the demand for trusted data storage in a large number of practical scenarios. This question has also led to a lot of discussions, such as “what data should be stored on-chain and what data should be stored off-chain”. The root cause of these problems is the limited storage efficiency and capacity of the blockchain itself. After all, in the database era, we never talked about “what data should be stored outside the database”.

In recent years, some products have also appeared, which provide useful practices for solving the above-mentioned inefficiency of blockchain data storage, such as:

Interstellar file system IPFS, R3’s Corda , Tencent TrustSQL, etc. However, these products still have more or less problems in data trusted storage, specifically:

IPFS generates hash digests for data content, and performs distributed storage among multiple nodes. Owner does not have complete data, which protects data privacy to a certain extent. However, IPFS can only be modified and knowable (because the hash value will change due to content changes), and there is no data security measures such as access control, it is still difficult to meet the needs of enterprise-level services as a whole.

Corda is a storage product tailored to the privacy needs of financial transactions, focusing on the privacy of data storage. For this reason, Corda does not have a global ledger and requires the existence of witnesses. It is a private but not sufficiently secure and reliable data storage solution.

TrustSQL and other similar products in China adopt a simple and intuitive design idea, which is also the most common practice in China, that is: first store the data in the database (or IPFS), then store the operation records, Hash etc. are stored on the chain. Compared with TrustSQL, some similar products such as ChainSQL of Zhongxiangbit have further improved the support for SQL. This type of product meets the needs of data “auditability” and “transparency in supervision”, but the disadvantage is that it still cannot prevent the deletion and modification of the data itself, but can only achieve “deletion and modification knowable”; in addition, the preservation of key data needs to rely on participation The full copy of the node is stored, and the storage cost is slightly higher. And the design of data privacy is still insufficient.

In view of the deficiencies in the above products, Wuyuan Technology has explored a different path through original technological innovation, and launched the product “ImSQL” with independent intellectual property rights Trusted storage products that have been tampered with or deleted without permission.

ImSQL (Immutable SQL Database) is a new trusted data storage solution based on blockchain and distributed storage technology. , “reducing storage costs” and other core issues provide a reliable technical path for trusted storage and data sharing in the era of big data.

Compared with existing products, ImSQL has the following outstanding advantages:

1. Completely prevent unilateral tampering and deletion of data without permission. By performing multi-party verification in the two links of storage and retrieval, and preventing tampering and deletion in the storage process, the authenticity and reliability of the data are fully guaranteed, so that the participants in the application can trust each other and adopt other parties’ data with confidence, so that the data can be Support accurate traceability and accountability.

2. Eliminate a single point of failure. While multiple parties share data, they also jointly maintain data. Data is not only stored in one party, but fundamentally realizes a trusted shared pool of distributed data, which not only avoids the risk of single-point failure, but also improves the efficiency of data sharing.

3. Fragmented storage meets the data privacy requirements, making it impossible for any party to master the complete data, thus solving the data privacy problems existing in the centralized storage of traditional cloud computing or the full copy storage of the blockchain. In addition to the data owner, no other storage custodian has access to the complete data.

4. Excellent data access performance: ImSQL single node can achieve a write speed of 3000 TPS and a read speed of 10000 QPS. In addition, ImSQL also has the advantages of supporting SQL language, horizontal expansion, excellent access performance and user experience, and can make full use of the set qun expansion to further increase the above indicators several times.

5. It meets the efficient access requirements of big data such as multimedia, supports efficient access, efficient indexing, and efficient expansion, and is truly competent for big data business scenarios. A trusted security experience like never before.

6. The sharded design greatly reduces the storage pressure and cost of each storage participant, allowing more participants to have the opportunity to join and participate in the ecosystem of trusted data sharing.

7. Distributed architecture, compatible with light nodes, and encourages more nodes to participate. There is no super node, and the nodes participating in the storage have the same status, which better guarantees the reliability and invulnerability of the system. In addition, if the node chooses to run in the light copy mode, it can only store part of the data, which greatly reduces its own storage pressure. Although the obligation is reduced, the power will not be affected in any way.

ImSQL takes into account the database attributes such as mass storage, fast indexing, and horizontal expansion, and also takes into account the blockchain characteristics that data is stored and solidified. In many fields that focus on trusted data storage and sharing, it is expected to It brings unprecedented user experience and convenience, such as: realizing data exchange and mutual trust among all parties in the supply chain, realizing data interconnection and interoperability between various departments of the government or large enterprises, supporting the storage of massive data related to trusted traceability, etc.

Take the construction of government big data as an example. Achieving efficient data interconnection among the many different departments and entities of government has always been a challenge. The current practice often requires establishing an independent big data department, building an independent data storage system, pulling relevant data from different entities, analyzing, reconstructing, and then realizing visualization. This often results in a large up-front cost, including both human andA variety of explicit expenses such as money and materials also imply hidden expenses such as staffing, rights and responsibilities, time costs, and department walls. At the same time, the existence of an independent big data department also implies the need for a trusted third party to endorse and even take responsibility. If ImSQL is used as the underlying basic platform for data communication in this scenario, this task can be completed more efficiently, which is embodied in:

  • There is no need to rely on the endorsement of a third-party entity : Data between different entities can be directly written to ImSQL, and the data can no longer be tampered or deleted without permission by any unilateral party, ensuring the availability, consistency and credibility of other entities accessing the data at any time;

  • There is no need to establish and maintain an additional data storage system: data is jointly stored and maintained by all participating entities, naturally shared and connected, which does not reduce the use efficiency and reduces the system implementation and maintenance costs. . At the same time, ImSQL’s data fragmentation storage technology can realize data sharing while taking into account privacy protection. That is, the data stored by all entities can be incomplete fragments, and only those entities with access rights can master the search for fragment data. , combined and interpreted keys.

  • In summary, as a reliable and data tamper-proof data storage technology, ImSQL completely inherits the advantages of blockchain data preservation, and breaks through the efficiency of blockchain. It provides users with the same efficient data access experience as the database. ImSQL is a new category generated by the combination of blockchain and database technology, and it is the best choice for realizing trusted data storage.

『柒』 Blockchain for national accounting, where is the database stored, why does the file not get bigger and bigger

const SHA256 = require(crypto-js/SHA256 );
class Block{
constructor(index,timestamp,data,previousHash=”)
{
this.index=index;
this.timestamp=timestamp ;
this.data=data;
this.previousHash=previousHash;
$this.hash=this.calculateHash();
}

calculateHash (){
return SHA256(this,index+this.previousHash+this.timestamp+JSON.stringify(this.data)).tostring();
}
}
class Blockchain{
constructor(){
this.chain=[this.createGenesisBlock()];
}
//Create a generation block
createGenesisBlock(){
return new Block(0,”01/01/2019″,”Genesis block”,0);
//The date is the user’s data, which is actually obtained by adding up several values Hash value, where the information is encrypted, the picture is encrypted, and then the data is still stored in the database, but all data is a hash value. To obtain this data, you must know the hash value of the previous data block, and then if a hacker cracks, all nodes need to be removed. Crack the hash decryption once, and then crack all the blocks from the first node to the last node, so as to decrypt and obtain the real data. Therefore, the security of data stored in the blockchain depends on whether the data has been encrypted. If the plaintext is not encrypted, then it is not a blockchain.
}
//Get the last block
getLatesBlock(){
return this.chain[this.chain.length-1];
}
//Create block
addBlock(newBlock){
newBlock.previousHash=this.getLatesBlock().hash;
newBlock.hash=newBlock.calculateHash();
this.chain .push(newBlock);
}
}

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