trx cells

1. Skin care steps

1. Cleansing milk or facial cleanser

Cleaning is always the first step in skin care. If it is not thoroughly cleaned, the skin will slowly It will become dry and rough, and the dirt will not be completely taken away, so the pores will become larger and larger.

2. Toner

Toner is a kind of make-up water, which can play an important role in secondary cleaning and shrinking pores.

3. Muscle base liquid

The product can promote the effective absorption of subsequent products and adjust the skin to achieve an ideal state.

4. Essence

The molecules of the essence are relatively small. If you use it later, the skin cannot absorb the essence well, so the essence must be used first.

5, lotion or cream

After using the essence, you can apply lotion or cream, if you have oily skin, you can only use lotion, if you have dry skin Creams can be used.

6. Sunscreen

You must remember to use sunscreen, and skin protection must be done well.

(1) trx cell extended reading:

Skin care food:

1. Pomegranate

With the development of science and technology, the “super” antioxidant variety in pomegranate has been discovered. At the same time, it can also stimulate the body’s immune system and promote good health.

Also studies have found that pomegranate can neutralize breast cancer and prostate cancer cells, and to a certain extent play a role in reversing the canceration of cells. Like grapefruit, pomegranates can also be used in medicine, so if you are taking certain medicines, you should ask your doctor if you can eat pomegranates in advance.

2. Black tea

Drinking a few cups of black tea every day can effectively prevent the damage of dental plaque to the teeth and prevent dental caries. The secret is naturally in the tea polyphenols. Plaque formed by tartar can turn teeth yellow and lead to periodontal disease. It is also more or less associated with narrowing of blood vessels. Drinking more black tea, but not adding milk and sugar, can help you have healthy teeth.

Reference source:

People’s Daily Online – What is the correct order of use of various skin care products?

People’s Network-8 kinds of super beauty foods that will become beautiful as long as you eat

2. Lymphocyte flow in rats Where to buy the test antibody kit? Give a link?

YYu-ELISA-55414 Rat sulfur redox protein (Trx) ELISA kit, English name: TrxELISAKit

YYu-ELISA- 55415 Rat thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) ELISA kit, Englishname: TrxRELISAKit

YYu-ELISA-55416 Rat melatonin sulfate (MS) ELISA kit, Englishname: MSELISAKit

YYu-ELISA-55417 Rabbit keratan sulfate (KS) ELISA kit, Englishname: KSELISAKit

YYu-ELISA-55418 Rabbit cystatin F (CST7) ELISA kit, Englishname: Cystatin -F,CST7ELISAkit

YYu-ELISA-55419 Rabbit Cystatin B(CSTB/CST6/STFB)ELISA Kit, Englishname: Cystatin-B,CSTB/CST6/STFBELISAkit

YYu-ELISA-55420 Rabbit Cystatin A (CSTA/STF1/STFA) ELISA Kit, English name: Cystatin-A,CSTA/STF1/STFAELISAkit

YYu-ELISA-55421 Rabbit Caspase 8( Casp-8) ELISA Kit, Englishname: Caspase8,Casp-8ELISAKit

YYu-ELISA-55422 Rabbit Caspase-5(CASP5)ELISA Kit, Englishname: CASP5ELISAKit

YYu-ELISA-55423 Rabbit Caspase 10 (CASP10) ELISA Kit, Englishname: CASP10ELISAKit

YYu-ELISA-55424 Rabbit Caspase 1 (Casp-1) ELISA Kit, Englishname: Caspase1, Casp-1ELISAKit

YYu-ELISA-55425 Rabbit cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) ELISA kit, English name: cysta thionineβ-synthase, CBSELISAKit, etc.

3. How do girls lose weight through trx training

Four scientific weight loss methods double the effect

We all know that losing fat requires that you consume more energy than you take in. In adults, energy needs depend on three factors: basal metabolic rate, dietary thermogenesis, and physical activity. Today we will talk about the basal metabolic rate.
Basic metabolism refers to the energy metabolism of the human body under the environmental conditions of being awake, lying still, fasting and 20 degrees Celsius. The basal metabolic rate is the minimum amount of energy consumed to maintain the most basic life activities per unit time. This energy consumption is fairly constant.
Tips1: Basal metabolism is the energy metabolism of the human body in the basal state. The basal metabolism per unit time is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR).
Basic metabolic rate accounts for the largest proportion of total energy consumption, about 60% to 75% of daily energy consumption. It is the amount of energy required to maintain normal body functions such as breathing, heart function and thermoregulation. Factors that increase basal metabolic rate include increased net tissue, youth, abnormal body temperature, menstrual cycle, and hyperthyroidism. Factors that reduce basal metabolic rate include low caloric intake, net tissue loss, and hypothyroidism. Besides,�The genetic difference in the function of thanks can reach 10% to 20% (this is one of the reasons why some people do not eat fat).
Tips2: Basal metabolic rate accounts for the largest proportion of total energy consumption.
The following are some factors that affect energy metabolism:
1. Muscle exercise
The effect of muscle exercise on energy metabolism is very significant. The degree of muscle activity is called the intensity of muscle work, which is commonly referred to as labor intensity or physical activity. Labor intensity is proportional to oxygen consumption, so energy metabolism value can be used as an index to evaluate labor intensity.
2. Mental activity
When the mental activity of the body is in a state of tension, such as trouble, fear or strong emotional agitation, it can cause unconscious skeletal muscle tension enhancement and metabolism-promoting endocrine hormones such as adrenal glands The release of hormones increases, thereby significantly increasing energy metabolism.
3. The special dynamic effect of food
The special dynamic effect of food refers to the consumption of heat energy caused by the feeding process. Experiments have shown that food intake can increase heat metabolism. The special dynamic effects of various nutrients in food are different. When ingesting sugar, the calorie consumption is equivalent to 5% to 6% of the heat produced by the sugar itself, 4% to 5% of fat, and about 30% of protein. The caloric energy consumption of the special dynamic effect of food in the general diet in my country is about 10% of the dietary calorie.
4. Ambient temperature
When the human body is at rest, the energy metabolism is most stable in the environment of 20-30°C. When the ambient temperature is lower than 20°C, the metabolic rate begins to increase. When the ambient temperature drops below 10°C, the energy metabolism increases significantly, mainly due to the increase in muscle tension and chills caused by the cold stimulation reflex. When the ambient temperature is 30-45°C, energy metabolism will also increase, which is due to the increase in the activity of enzymes in the body, the acceleration of chemical reactions, the strong sweating function, and the enhancement of circulation and breathing functions.
Tips3: Muscle movement, mental activity, special dynamic effects of food and ambient temperature will all have an impact on energy metabolism.
The following are some factors that affect the basal metabolic rate. The metabolic rate is higher than the latter, which is related to the proportion of lean body mass in the human body. More adipose tissue consumes less calories in metabolism than lean body mass.
2. Age
In a person’s life, the infant stage is the most active stage of metabolism, including the basal metabolic rate. Newborn infants grow and develop rapidly, and the basal metabolic rate is high. The basal metabolic rate gradually decreases with growth. The basal metabolic rate decreases by approximately 2% every 10 years in adulthood. Generally, adults are significantly lower than children, and the elderly are lower than adults.
3. Gender
Actual measurement shows that under the same age and the same body surface area, the basal metabolic rate of women is lower than that of men. Under normal circumstances, women’s basal metabolic rate is about 5% to 10% lower than that of men, even at the same height and weight. Because the proportion of lean body mass in women is lower than that in men, the basal metabolic rate of women increases significantly during pregnancy, and the increase rate can reach about 28%, which is related to the increase in heat consumption of placenta, uterus, fetal development, respiration, and heartbeat.
4. Hormones
Hormones have a great influence on the metabolism and regulation of cells. Many glands secrete hormones that regulate cell metabolism, such as thyroid and adrenal glands. When hyperthyroidism can significantly increase the basal metabolic rate; conversely, with myxedema, the basal metabolic rate is lower than normal. When the function of the adrenal cortex and pituitary gland is low, the basal metabolic rate decreases. In other words, endocrine abnormalities can affect the basal metabolic rate.
5. Temperature
The basal metabolic rate of the residents in the hot zone is generally lower, and the basal metabolic rate of the general tropical residents is about 10% lower than that of the similar residents in the temperate zone. Conversely, the basal metabolic rate in severe cold regions is 10% higher than that in temperate regions. Under normal circumstances, cold winters are significantly higher than hot summers, and there are obvious differences in seasons.
6. Body surface area
The level of basal metabolic rate is not proportional to body weight, but is basically proportional to body surface area. Therefore, physiologically, it is more appropriate to use the square meter body surface area as the standard to measure the energy metabolism rate.
Tips4: Body type, age, gender, hormones, air temperature and body surface area will all have an impact on the basal metabolic rate.
It is precisely because of the problem of basal metabolism that you need to reduce fat in a scientific way to ensure a healthy body to meet the ideal body shape.
In order to show the perfect body in summer, the fat loss period has gradually entered. For any woman who loses fat, in addition to training and diet, there are many things you need to pay attention to. You must have a more comprehensive understanding of fat loss, and make reasonable arrangements for diet and training, so that you can do more with less.

4. The meaning expressed by common English prefixes and suffixes

1. express negativeSuffix
1. dis – before nouns, adjectives, and verbs.
disadvantage (disadvantage) dishonorable (disgraceful) disagree (disagree)
2. In- is added before adjectives and nouns
incorrect (incorrect), inability (incompetent, powerless), inaccurate (inaccurate)
3. im- is added before the letters m, b, p
impossible (disobedient), impolite (impolite), impudence (shameless)
4. il- is added before words starting with 1
illegal (illegal), illiterate (illiterate, unliterate) illogical (illogical)
5. ir- is added before the word starting with r
irregular (unstable), irresistable (irresistable), irresolvable (indecomposable, insoluble)
6. un- before nouns, adjectives, adverbs
unfinished (unfinished) undoubted (no doubt) unemployment (unemployed)
7. non-Added before adjectives, nouns
non-existence (absence), non-essential (not essential), non-electrical (non-electrical)
8. Mis – added before verbs and nouns
misunderstand (misunderstanding), misjudge (misjudgment), misleading (misleading), misfortune (unfortunate)
9. Dis – before the addictive verb
disappear (disappear), disarm (disarm), disconnect (lost contact)
10. de- is added before nouns and adjectives
demobilize (demobilize; demobilize) decolor (decolorize, bleach)
11. Anti- is added before nouns and adjectives
anti-Japanese (anti-Japanese war), anti-social (aversion to society, anti-social), antidite (antidote)
12. Counter-Added before nouns and verbs
counterattack (counterattack, counterattack), counteract (resistance, obstruction) counterrevolution (counter-revolution)
2. Prefixes indicating “before”
1. pre-
preconception (prejudice), pre-exsiting (existing before…), pre-selection (before the election) preface (preface)
2. Ante-
anteroom (front room, reception room), antecessor (forerunner, pioneer)
3. Fore-
forehaed (forehead), foreground (foreground), foreman (foreman, foreman), foresee (foresee, seer), foretell (prophecy)
4. Pro-
programme (plan), prologue (prologue)
5. Ex-
ex-president (former president) ex-wife (ex-wife)
3. Prefix that means “post-post”
1. post-
post-war (after the war), post-position (postposition), postmeridian (afternoon)
Four. Prefixes representing “low” and “lower”
1. Hypo-
Hypocrisy (hypocrisy, hypocrisy), hypothesis (hypothetical), pypocholoride (hypochlorite)
2. Infra-
Infra-red (infrared), infrahuman (lower than human), infrasonic (subsonic, infrasound)
3. Sub-
Sub-editou (associate editor), sub-way (subway), sub-conscious (subconscious), submarine (under the sea), subtropical (subtropical), subtitle (subtitle)
Fives. Prefixes for “back”, “again”, “backward”
1. Re-
Refuel (refueling…), retranslate (re-translation), reinforce (strengthen), rebuild (rebuild), return (return)
2. Retro-
Retrograde (backward), retrospect (review)
Six. Prefixes indicating “common”, “and”
1. Co-
co-exist (coexist), co-operate (co-operation), co-ecation (co-educational)
Seven. Prefixes indicating “mutual” and “between”
1. Inter-
Interchangeble (interchangeable), interdipendert (interdependent), international (international), inter-national (communication)
Eight. Prefixes indicating “out” and “exceeding”
br /> 1. Ec-
Eclipse (eclipse), ecstasy (crazy)
2. Extra-
Extraordinary (extraordinary), extramural (off-campus), extrasensory (super-sensory)
Nine. Prefixes that mean “more than”
1. hyper-, preter-, super-, sur-, ultra-
hyper-sensitive (allergic), preterhuman (superhuman)
10. Other prefixes
1. auto-self
automatic (automatic), auto-autobilgraphy (autobiography)
2. mal-bad, evil
Malnutrition (malnutrition), maltreat (abuse)
3. Micro-
Microscope (microscope), microtome (microtome)
4. Tele-far
Telegram (telegram), telephone (telephone), telescope (telescope)
5. Demi-, semi-hemi-
Semi-circle (semi-circle), hemisphere (hemisphere), demilune (half moon, new moon)
6. Uni-, mono- (single, alone)
Monotone (monotone), monologue (monologue), uniform (uniform)
7. Bi-,di-two
Biyearly (once every two years), biweekly (once every two weeks), dichloride (dichloride)
8. Tri-three
Triangle (triangle), tripld (tripod)
9. Multi-multi
multi-colored (various colors), multi-national (multinational)
10. Poly – Poly
Polygon (polygonal), polytomic (polyatomic)
11. Arch – chief
archbishop (archbishop), architect (architect)
12. bene-good, good
benefit (interest), benevolence (goodwill)
13. Homo-same
homosexual (homosexual), homograph (homograph)
14. neo
neo-colonialism (new colonialism), neolithic (neolithic)
15. ortho-correct, straight
orthogonal (right-angled), orthodox (orthodox)
16. philo-beloved
philosopher (philosopher)
17. proto-original
protohydrogen (initial hydrogen), prototype (prototype), protoplasm (protoplasm)
18. Pseudo-false, fake, fake
pseudonym (anonymity), pseudo-communism (pseudo-communism)
19. a-, ab-, abs- (only before t, c) from, since
avoid (avoid), abstract (absent), abstract (inhibit), abstract (attract)
20. Apo-, aph- from
apology (apology, apology), apostle (advocate, pioneer)
21. se-separation
separation (separation), secure (secure), sedition (sedition)
22. para-anti-
parachute (parachute),
23. omni-all, public
omnibus (bus), omnipotence (universal)
24. pan-full, pan
Pan-American (American), panancean (panacea), panorama (panorama of the landscape; kaleidoscope)
25. panto-all
pantisocracy (Utopia Datong world), pantoscopic (broad vision)
26. dia – through, whereby
diagonal (diagonal), diagnosis (diagnosis), dialogue (dialogue)
27. Per-pass, thorough, unfavorable
perambrlate (walk around), perfect
28.trans-pass, traverse
transcript (transcript, copy; record), translation ( Translation), trxnparent (transparent), transport (transportation), trans-plant (transplantation)
29. Com-, con-, cor-, col-common, and, completely , co-authored)
30. syn-common
synonym (synonym), synchronization (synchronization), syntonic (resonant), synthetic (artificial, synthetic)
31. meta-and, after…
metaphor (figurative), metaphysics (metaphysics)
32. Cis – on this side
cisatlantic (on the Atlantic side)
33. pen-almost, similar
peninsular (. residents living on the peninsula, peninsula (like), the formation of peninsula)
34. en-,em- into…, to make…
encamp (to camp), enable (to enable…), endear (to make… favored), embrace (to embrace, seize (opportunity))
35. Intro
intracardiac (inside the heart), intramolecular (inside the molecule), intracelular (inside the cell)
36. intro-to…
introce (introduction), introspect (introspection, introspection)
37. dys-bad
dyspepsia (indigestion), dysentry (dysentery)
38. Eu-excellent, beautiful
eulogy (eulogy), euphony (sound to the ear)
39. ambi-,amphi-both
amphibian (amphibian), ambidextrous (both hands are very dexterous; half-hearted; very dexterous)
40. penta-five
pentagon (Pentagon), pentagram (pentagon), pentameter (five-step verse)
41. sex-six
sexangle (hexagonal), sexennial (six years)
42. sept-7
September September (July in ancient Rome), septennial (seven years)
43. hepta-seven
heptab (seven sets of things), heptagon (heptagon)
44. Octa-, octo, oct eight
octagon (octagonal), octuple (eight times) October (October)
45. nona-, ennea-nine
nonagon (nine angle), ennead (a group of nine)
46. Deci-,deca-ten
decimal (decimal), decagramme (ten grams)
47. centi-hundred
centimeter (centimeter), centipede (centipede)Clam)
48. milli-thousand
millenias (millennium), millimeter (millimeter)
49. Kilo-thousand
kilowatt (kilowatt), kilometer (kilometer)
1. -ster, -eer, -er (or) means: a person engaged in an occupation or activity (person engaged in an occupation or activity) Examples: gamester, gangster, songster, engineer, profiteer, mountaineer, auctioneer , driver, teacher, director, actor, professor
2. -let means: small or unimportant things (small, unimportant things) Examples: booklet, leaflet, starlet
3. -ette means: 1) small things (small) example: cigarette 2) fake things (imitation) example: leatherette 3) female (female) example: usherette
4. -ess means: female (female) Examples: actress, poetess, hostess, paintress
5. -hood means: period (status; etc.) Examples: boyhood, childhood, manhood
6. -ship means: ability, status, qualification, quality, etc. (skill, state, condition, status, quality) Examples: leadership, friendship, membership, lectureship, sportsmanship
7. -ful means: the amount (the amount which noun contains) Example words: cupful, handful, mouthful, spoonful
8. -tion, -ion means: 1) state, action, etc. (state; action; etc.) Example words: action, oppression, possession, ecation, starva- tion 2) institutions, etc. (institution; etc.) Example words: organization , foundation
9. -ment means: state, action, etc. (state; action; etc.) Examples: movement, enslavement, pavement
10. -al means: action (action) Examples: arrival, refusal, revival, recital, removal
11. -age means: extent, amount, etc. (extent; amount; etc.) Examples: wasteage, coverage, acreage, shrinkage, breakage, hostage
12. -ness; -ity (ty) means: state, quality (state; quality; etc.) Examples: happiness, usefulness, selfishness, kindness, rapidity, activity, sanity, changeability
13. -ism means: morality, doctrine, doctrine, etc. (doctrine of, practice of) Examples: idealism, impressionism, absoluteism, racism
2. Verb suffix
Common such suffixes and their specific meanings are as follows :
1. -ify means: to turn into, to make or become Example words: beautify, diversify, simplify
2. -ize; -en means: to make…, become… (to make or become; to make into) Examples: modernize, popularize, legalize, hospitalize, symbolize, ripen, widen, heighten, threaten
3. -ate means: increase, make… (give or add, make or become) Examples: originate, hydrogenate, validate, differentiate
Third, adjective suffixes:
Common such suffixes and their specific The meanings are as follows:
1. -ful means: full of (full of; hav-ing; giving; etc.) Examples: useful, pitiful, hopeful, helpful, forgetful, thankful, fearful
2. -less means: no, no (without; not giving) Examples: speechless, childless, harmless, hopeless, meaningless
3. -ly means: having the qualities of (having the qualities of) Examples: beastly, manly, brotherly, friendly
4. -like means: like (like) Example words: childlike, statesmanlike, tiger-like
5. -y; -ish means: something like…Examples: meaty, sandy, silky, hairy, leafy, watery, foolish, girlish, blackish, thinnish
6. -some means: like…; causing…; having… quality of (like; causing; having the quality of) Examples: troublesome, burdensome, wholesome, tiresome, mothersome
7. -able (ible) means: able to…; can… (able to be; capable) Examples: changeable, readable, drinkable, comfortable, expansible, convincible
8. -ed means: having… (having, etc.) Examples: wooded, pointed, moneyed, odd-shaped
9. -al means: with … attributes, … type (nature of, typical of) Examples: cultural, personal, regional, musical
10. -ary (ory) means: belonging to …, connected with … (belonging to; connected with) Examples: revolutionary, imaginary, contradictory
11. -ous means: rich in…; having… quality; like… (full of; having the quality of; like) Examples: glorious, erroneous, malicious, gracious
12. -ic (ical) means: typical of; belonging toto) Examples: historic, historical, methodical, methodical, dramatic, heroic
13. -ive means: having the attributes of…; having the nature or quality of; given or tending to Examples: attractive, talkative, restrictive, defensive, preventive, constructive, sensitive
four , adverb suffix
Common such suffixes and their specific meanings are as follows:
1. -ly means: in a…manner; etc.
Example words: happy, boldly, attentive-ly, strangely
2. -ward(s) means: Manner and direction of movement Examples: onward(s), backward(s), earthward(s), homeward(s), eastward(s)
3. -wise means: 1) in the manner of example: crabwise, clockwise2) as far as …is concerned Example words: weatherwise, ecationwise
There is a reason for a monosyllabic word that ends with only one monosyllable consonant. After adding a vowel suffix, it is necessary to double write this consonant. Example words: run + er = runner hit + ing = hitting

5. Biomarkers of oxidative stress

Evaluation methods
Oxidative stress Quantitative evaluation methods of ROS can be roughly divided into three categories: 1) determination of compounds modified by reactive oxygen species; 2) determination of the amount of reactive oxygen species elimination system enzymes and antioxidant substances; 3) determination of oxidative stress indicators containing transcription factors. Further, there are: 1) the degree of oxidative stress in the living body is sufficient to generate a response; 2) it is difficult to accumulate in the living body; 3) it is not metabolized in the living body, but exists stably, and so on. Understanding these points is very useful for clinical popularization.
However, clinically, the quantification of oxidative stress remains problematic. Because oxidative stress is closely related to various diseases, it lacks specificity, and its quantitative index is difficult to be used for specific diseases. Therefore, it is currently considered that it should be used for “systemic evaluation”, or “severity and prognosis” evaluation after the cause of the disease has been identified as oxidative stress. Representative biomarkers:
8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)
8-OHdG is a sensitive marker of DNA damage, because a hydroxyl group is attached to the first position of guanine. formed on 8 carbons. However, the fact that its oxidation “is induced by hydroxyl radicals generated by oxidative stress” was first reported by Kasai in 1984. 8-OHdG is easily detected by electrochemical methods after being separated by high performance liquid chromatography, so it can be measured in many laboratories. In addition, the specific monoclonal antibody of 8-OHdG has been developed in the 1990s, and related papers have increased significantly since then; not only for understanding various diseases, but also for its value as a preventive medicine health indicator. Furthermore, many antioxidant substances have been used in clinical intervention experiments in recent years, and it is expected that by reducing 8-OHdG, the purpose of anti-aging and disease prevention can be achieved.
Currently reported diseases that can lead to the increase of 8-OHdG include chronic viral hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, colorectal cancer and gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. It is further understood that 8-OHdG can also be increased by lifestyle, such as smoking and drinking, strenuous exercise, and oversaturated ultraviolet/radiation exposure. Form a guide for life and maintain individual health.
Thioreductin (TRX)
TRX is one of the important redox regulator molecules in cells; when it encounters various stimuli such as virus infection, ultraviolet light and environmental pollutants, its intracellular expression will be induced . Even in the presence of TRX alone, it can show the elimination of singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals, and in addition to being used as an antioxidant, it is also used to reduce the disulfide bond of proteins. Further, with respect to synaptic transmission, TRX was able to inhibit the activation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK. Furthermore, it is recognized that TRX is also released extracellularly, showing its cytokine/chemokine-like effects. It has been reported that, in relation to human disease, elevated TRX concentrations can occur in the serum of HIV-infected and hepatitis C patients. In addition, it is noted that autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and chronic cardiac insufficiency can also be used for effective evaluation of diseases that can cause oxidative stress. Test kits are available for TRX.
Diseases caused by oxidative stress
View 1: Insulin resistance stems from oxidative stress. The consequence of high free fatty acid (FFA) stimulation is the highly reactive molecular oxygen species (ROS) and increased production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), thereby initiating oxidative stress mechanisms (long-term imbalance between the production of highly reactive molecules and antioxidant effects that cause tissue damage). These active molecules can directly oxidize and damage DNA, proteins, and lipids, and can also act as functional molecular signals to activate cells.There are multiple stress-sensitive signaling pathways in ��, which are closely related to insulin resistance and impaired β-cell function.
View 2: Oxidative stress damages pancreatic β cells
β cells are also important targets of oxidative stress β cells have low levels of antioxidant enzymes, so they are more sensitive to ROS. ROS can directly damage pancreatic β cells, promote β cell apoptosis, and indirectly inhibit β cell function by affecting the insulin signal transduction pathway. β cells are damaged, the level of insulin secretion is reduced, the peak of secretion is delayed, and blood sugar fluctuations are intensified, so it is difficult to control the rapid rise in blood sugar after meals, causing more significant damage to cells.
Professor Ceriello put forward the common soil theory in 2004, that is, oxidative stress is the common basis of IR, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
View 3: Oxidative stress accelerates the deposition of atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the arterial intima, which is the initiating factor of atherosclerosis (AS). Under the action of ROS secreted by vascular cells, “primitive “LDL becomes oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), stimulates endothelial cells to secrete a variety of inflammatory factors, induces monocytes to adhere, migrate into the arterial intima, and transform into macrophages. ox-LDL can also induce macrophages to express scavenger receptors and promote their uptake of lipoproteins to form foam cells. At the same time, ox-LDL is an activator of NADPH oxidase, which can enhance its activity, promote the production of ROS, and is more conducive to the oxidation of LDL to ox-LDL. In addition, ox-LDL can inhibit the production of NO and its biological activity, resulting in abnormal vasodilation.

6. Common English prefixes and suffixes

1. Common English Prefixes

1, a-aboard leave, deviate from ‖abnormala. abnormal

3, anti-first‖ anticipatevt. expected

4, ac-, ad-, af-, ag-, ap-, ar- , as-, at-represents meaning ‖ accusevt. accusation

5, bene-good‖ beneficiala. beneficial

6, bio-life‖ biologyn. biology

7, cata-down ‖catalog(ue)n.catalog

8, col-, com-, con-, co-, cor-common, together‖combatn.fight


9、contra-opposite‖contrastv.contrast, contrast

10, de-distance; strengthen the meaning‖departvi. dif-, dis-separate‖discardvt.discard

12, dia-through‖diametern.diameter

13, e-, ef-, ex-out, out‖exportv. Exit

14, em-, en- in…; make… ‖ enclosevt. enclose

15, fore-front ‖ foreheadn. forehead

16, i-, il-, im-, in-not ‖indifferenta. not caring

17, im-, il- on ‖imposevt. to impose on

17 p>

18, in-enter; indicate to…‖indicatevt., signify

19, inter-between…‖interferevi. interfere

20, micro -, mini-small‖microwaven.microwave

21, multi-many‖multiplea.composite, multiple

22, non-no‖nonsensen.nonsense

23, ob-, op-opposite ‖opposevt. oppose

24, out-outward, out ‖outletn. exit

25, over-over‖overlookvt. suddenly Perspective

26, per-through ‖perspectiven.perspective

27, pre-before‖pregnata.pregnant

28, pro-forward ‖promotevt. promote

29, re-backward; -under ‖subwayn.subway

32, super-above, super‖superiora. better than

33, trans-cross, cross ‖transplantvt. transplanting

34, tri-three‖ trianglen. triangle

35, un-not‖ uncovervt. uncovered

36, under-in …below, below … ‖underlinevt. Underline

37, uni-a ‖uniquea. unique, unique

two, common English suffix

1. Verb suffix: -ate,-en, -(i)fy, -ish, -ize/ise

2. Adverb suffix: -ly,-ward(s) , -way(s)

3. Adjective suffixes: -able/ible, -al/ial, -full, -ic, -ish, -ive, -ly

4 , Noun suffixes for “people”: -ist, -man, -er/or, -ee, -ant

5. Noun suffixes for “small”: -el, -let, -( c)ule

6. Abstract noun suffixes: -ion, -hood, -ic(s), -ism, -ship, -ty

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An English word can be divided into three parts: prefix, stem and suffix. The part of the word that comes before the root is the prefix. Prefixes that change the meaning of words.

7. What does trx mean

trx suspension training; thioredoxin; thioredoxin; protein; transceiver.

Trx has various biological functions in keeping stable redox status of cells.

thioredoxin has various biological functions and plays an important role in maintaining stable redox status in the body .

Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector with TRX gene by Tet-Off inction.

Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector of thioredoxin gene induced by Tet-Off.

These studies have shown that: TRX can suppress tumor cell apoptosis.

These studies have shown that: TRX can suppress tumor cell apoptosis.

Trx plays crucial roles in regulating cell growth, apoptosis and gene transcription.

Trx has functions such as regulating cell growth, inhibiting apoptosis and regulating gene transcription.

CONCLUSION: TRX protein plays an important role in the defense response of myocardium against oxidative stress.

Conclusion: TRX protein plays an important role in the defense response of myocardium against oxidative stress.

8. How to see the plasmid map

1. The first step, look at the arrow:

Most plasmids will have arrows, and the arrows have Two explanations. One is the direction of transcription. The direction of transcription is mainly a large arrow starting from the promoter, which is the sequence of the promoter sequence. The other is the direction of the origin of replication, which is the direction of DNA replication of the plasmid in bacteria or fungi such as Escherichia coli.

It should also be mentioned that the F1 promoter (f1 ori in the figure) represents the origin of replication of the phage, and can only replicate single-stranded DNA, but it can be used for sequencing. Understand the direction of transcription, so that it is convenient to design the position and direction of the insert.

2. The second step, look at the label above.

Reporter gene: There are usually one or two proteins that are used as reporter genes, such as common copGFP (green fluorescent protein), Puro (puromycin), Lacz (lactose operon) and so on. Unlike resistance genes, such reporter genes are not designed to function during plasmid amplification in E. coli.

It plays a role after the plasmid is transferred into the expression system, basically to show whether the overexpressed or knocked down gene is functioning normally. Some reporter genes will be expressed in a fusion protein, and some will be expressed with an independent promoter (such as in shRNA plasmids).

3. The third step, look at the multi-cloning site:

MCS (Multiple Cloning Site, that is, the multi-cloning site), in general, the multi-cloning site will be placed on the cleavage sites are marked. The above enzyme cleavage sites are generally arranged in the order of 5`-3`. It is necessary to pay attention to the following points.

The first point is to note that the restriction enzyme sites marked with * generally mean that there is not only one site, and it cannot be used as the restriction site for constructing plasmids.

The second point to note is that some enzyme cleavage sites have only one in the sequence, but it will also be marked with a * or (dam), which indicates that this enzyme cleavage site may be There are methylation modifications of CpG islands [the common one is XbaI, the TC in TCTAG(6m)A cannot be cleaved], and it is generally not available. But if you have to use this restriction site, you need to use unmethylated competent cells, such as JM109 or JM110.

4. The fourth step, look at the sequence of the multi-cloning site:

If there is a difference at the end, you can replace the 5` end of the ATG (methionine) of the gene 1-2 bases (like GTG or GCG), which can be completely identical starting from the second amino acid sequence. With amplification and digestion, the insert is allowed to have redundancy at the 3′ end.

In order to cope with the redundant bases at the 3` end, after the multiple cloning site sequence, there will be a decoding stop TAA code, even if the inserted fragment causes a frameshift mutation at the 3` end, The expressed protein can still be terminated normally (in the AD plasmid of yeast two-hybrid, since random cDNA is inserted, such a structure is common in AD vectors).

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1. According to whether the plasmid can pass bacterial conjugation It can be divided into conjugative plasmids and non-conjugative plasmids.

Conjugative plasmids carry genes related to conjugative transmission. Non-conjugated plasmids are delivered under certain conditions by induction or transduction of conjugative plasmids that coexist with them.

2. According to the type of plasmid replication in bacteria, it can be divided into two categories: tight control type and relaxed control type.

The replicase system of tightly controlled replicative plasmids is shared with chromosomal DNA replication and can only be replicated in a certain stage of the cell cycle. When the cell chromosomes stop replicating, the plasmids will no longer replicate.

The replication enzyme system of the relaxation-controlled replication type plasmid is not affected by the chromosomal DNA replication enzyme system, and can replicate at any time during the entire cell growth cycle, and the plasmid can continue to replicate when the chromosomal replication has stopped.

3. According to the incompatibility of plasmids, it can be divided into incompatibility and compatibility.

Incompatibility refers to the phenomenon that similar and closely related plasmids cannot coexist stably in the same host bacteria, and vice versa. Often used in epidemiological investigations.

9. -fy in English�What does the �� suffix generally mean? Is there a more detailed list of the meanings of the suffix or prefix?

1. The -fy word suffix means: to turn into, to make or become) , for example:

1, beautify (beautify, make…beautiful).

2, diversify (diversify, make… become more).

3, simplify (simplify, make… simple).

2. The meanings and example words of common English prefixes are as follows:

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suffix-ful , -ous, -ent, -ant are adjectives that can be added directly to verbs or nouns. Generally speaking, adjectives formed by adding the suffixes -ful, -ous, -ent, -ant to verbs express the active meaning.

-ful means “rich”, “full of”, “having the nature of”, “prone” or “capable of”. For example: powerful (powerful) peaceful (peaceful) shameful (shameful) helpful (helpful) forgetful (forgettable)

-ous means “such as…”, “there is… of”, “having” or “belonging to”. For example: envious (envy; jealous) dangerous (dangerous) famous (famous) barbarous (savage) monstrous (monstrous, deformed)

-ent means “having the nature of… “or “about”. For example: dependent (dependent) confident (confident) apparent (obvious) innocent (innocence, naive) frequent (repeated)

10. Hello, you can tell What are the characteristics and functions of my oranges? 1

Oranges are bright in color, sweet and sour, and are one of the most common fruits in daily life. The orange tree is green and lovely, and many famous people in the past have described it – “green leaves are full of glory, and they are delightful”, “green and dyed, the articles are rotten. Poems of the patriotic poet Qu Yuan in “Ode to Oranges”. The poet praised the tangerine branches with dense leaves, vigor and splendor, and the fruit was pure and exquisite, like a person of noble character.
Nutritional value: Compared with pears, the protein content of oranges is 9 times that of pears, the content of calcium is 5 times that of pears, the content of phosphorus is 55 times that of pears, and the content of vitamin Bi is 8 times that of pears. The content of vitamin B2 is 3 times that of pears, the content of niacin is 1.5 times that of pears, and the content of vitamin C is 10 times that of pears, which can be described as rich in nutrients. Oranges also contain malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, carotene, pectin, glucose, etc.
Therapeutic effects-food: Oranges have preventive effects on coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and gout. Eating oranges can reduce cholesterol deposited in arteries and help reverse atherosclerosis. Fresh oranges can also strengthen the spleen and stomach, warm the lungs and relieve cough. Oranges are commonly used clinically to treat scurvy, night blindness, skin keratosis, vomiting and chest tightness. Oranges are rich in vitamin C and citric acid, the former has a cosmetic effect, and the latter has the effect of eliminating fatigue. The thin skin on the inside of the orange is rich in vitamin C and pectin, which can promote laxatives, lower cholesterol, and also solve the problems of cough and phlegm and loss of appetite. Tangerine peel and sugar decoction can also cure colds. Eating oranges can reduce cholesterol deposited in arteries and help reverse atherosclerosis. In fresh orange juice, there is a substance with strong anti-cancer activity – “Nomilin”, which can decompose carcinogenic chemicals, inhibit and block the growth of cancer cells, and double the activity of detoxification enzymes in the human body. Improve, prevent carcinogen damage to the nucleus, and protect the integrity of genes.
Diet taboos: 1-3 per day. Do not drink milk within 1 hour before and after eating oranges, because the protein in milk will coagulate when encountering fruit acid, affecting digestion and absorption. People with poor gastrointestinal function who eat too many oranges are prone to stomach stones. It is not advisable to eat more oranges, otherwise it will cause “orange disease” and symptoms such as yellowing of the skin. After eating oranges, you should brush your teeth and rinse your mouth in time to avoid harm to your mouth and teeth. Oranges contain more calories. If you eat too much at one time, you may “get angry”, which will lead to stomatitis, periodontitis and other diseases.
Healthy recipes: ◆Orange cake milk fungus soup
Two oranges, 10-15 grams of white fungus, and a little rock sugar. First, make the fresh oranges with white sugar, press them into cakes, and dry them for later use; take the white fungus and wash it with water: put the orange cakes and white fungus in a pot, add water, first boil them with a strong fire, and then use a slow fire. Stew for 3-5 hours, when the white fungus rotten and crispy juice thickens, add an appropriate amount of sugar. This soup has the functions of moistening the lungs and relieving cough, nourishing deficiency and resolving phlegm. It is suitable for patients with dryness and cough due to lung dryness.
◆Tangerine slag juice
250 grams of oranges, 100 grams of hawthorn, and a little sugar. Peel the oranges and put them in a juicer to squeeze the juice; remove the core of the hawthorn and wash it; first put the hawthorn in a pot, add 200 ml of water to boil, filter and extract the juice,Then add the orange juice into it and add a little sugar. This juice is sweet and sour, suitable for all ages, and has the functions of lowering blood pressure, lowering lipids, and dilating coronary arteries. It is especially suitable for the elderly or patients with hypertension, hyperlipidemia and coronary atherosclerosis.
◆Tangerine Soup
300 grams of orange, 40 grams of hawthorn cake, a little sugar and sweet-scented osmanthus. Peel off the orange peel, remove the tang and core of the orange, and cut into cubes for later use; add water to the pot and heat it, add sugar, and when the sugar water boils, skim off the foam; put the diced orange in the pot, sprinkle with sugar osmanthus, Hawthorn cake is ready to serve. This soup is appetizer and food aid, moistens the lungs and relieves cough. It can be used as a health food for patients with dryness of the lungs, cough, irritability and chest tightness, loss of appetite, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases.


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