- 1 1. How does the blockchain transmit data
- 2 2. What is the concept of blockchain
- 3 3. What is the so-called “blockchain”
- 4 4. What is a blockchain mesh network and what is it?
- 5 5. What is a computer network based on blockchain technology?
- 6 6. What is the working principle of the blockchain
- 7 7. What are the blocks in the blockchain connected by?
- 8 8. Briefly explain what a blockchain is
- 9 9. What is the side chain and the main chain in the blockchain
- 10 10. What is the principle of blockchain
1. How does the blockchain transmit data
The blockchain is a chain data structure that combines data blocks in a sequential manner according to time sequence , and a cryptographically guaranteed immutable and unforgeable distributed ledger. Broadly speaking, blockchain technology is the use of blockchain data structures to verify and store data, the use of distributed node consensus algorithms to generate and update data, the use of cryptography to ensure the security of data transmission and access, and the use of automated scripts. A new distributed infrastructure and computing paradigm for programming and manipulating data using smart contracts composed of code.
2. What is the concept of blockchain
Literally understood, blockchain includes two concepts: block, chain. The blockchain itself is composed of blocks, and the network constructed by linking different nodes together is the blockchain. The main function of the blockchain is to store information. Any information that needs to be saved can be written into the blockchain or read from it.
Every block stores: some valid record or transaction; information about the block; links to the previous block and the next block through the hash of each block – can be considered a block The unique code of the fingerprint.
Therefore, each block has a specific and immovable position within the chain because each block contains information from the hash of the previous block. The entire chain is stored in each network node that makes up the blockchain, so an exact copy of the chain is stored in all network participants.
In essence, a blockchain can be used to store any type of information that must remain intact and more secure than going through a man-in-the-middle. , decentralized and cheaper ways to stay available. Furthermore, since the stored information is encrypted, its confidentiality is guaranteed as only those who possess the encryption key can access it.
Using blockchain in healthcare. For example, health records can be consolidated and stored on the blockchain. This means that every patient’s medical history is safe and, at the same time, available to every authorized physician, regardless of the health center where the patient is being treated. Even the pharmaceutical industry can use this technology to authenticate medicines and prevent counterfeiting.
Blockchains are also very useful for managing digital assets and documents. The problem with digitization so far is that everything is easy to replicate, but Blockchain allows you to record purchases, deeds, documents or any other type of online asset without it being counterfeited.
3. What is the so-called “blockchain”
It can be said that 2020 is the first year of the industrial blockchain. With the continuous development of blockchain technology, the number of companies actively deploying blockchain has grown exponentially. However, the blockchain is still in a very early stage of development, and the implementation of blockchain applications still requires continuous exploration.
For more than a decade, blockchain technology has had a wide-ranging impact on a global scale. Compared with the beginning of its birth, the face of the blockchain industry has undergone earth-shaking changes.
The blockchain market in the past few years is more like the Internet before 2000. The Internet before 2000 experienced a period of restlessness, and it also encountered ups and downs. .
When participating in Cointelegraph’s event in Chinese, Wilson, partner of Avalanche Asia Ecology, said: “In 2018, the blockchain ecology was completely different from now, and it was more conceptual at that time. There has been a big difference in the blockchain industry. More and more reliable projects are born.”
Indeed, apart from being initially limited to the application of digital currency, blockchain technology has gradually become the foundation of different traditional industries. facility. After more than ten years of exploration and research and development, blockchain has found more application scenarios that can highlight its value.
The trend of growth is unabated, but large-scale application has not yet been realized
It can be said that 2020 is the first year of the industrial blockchain. With the continuous development of blockchain technology, the number of companies actively deploying blockchain has grown exponentially. In the context of the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, blockchain technology has also shown its huge potential to be developed.
In the past year, global blockchain companies continued to grow, but at a slower pace. According to the “Blockchain White Paper (2020)” of the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology, as of September 2020, there were 3,709 blockchain companies in the world, mainly located in the United States and China, of which the United States accounted for 27%, China accounted for 24%.
Obviously, with the continuous introduction of positive blockchain policies in various countries around the world, and the promotion of blockchain technology to empower the real economy, the blockchain industry bubbles out, and the industry returns to rationality. More and more companies are running into the market and actively using blockchain technology to expand their business.
Even if the current blockchain-related enterprises are like spring after rainBamboo shoots appear, but the blockchain is still in a very early stage of development. From the lowest protocol layer, it is still very early from a mature and complete state. The middleware layer may be very far from maturity, and the middleware layer may be a very important infrastructure required for the future integration of the blockchain with the real world and the real economy.
When these things have gradually become standardized and mature, we will usher in a stage where the blockchain becomes mainstream and explodes.
For the development of the entire blockchain technology, Helium China Managing Director Gao Gao pointed out: “The user experience of various blockchain applications is not very good now. The key point of application. In the end, the blockchain can be implemented and become a part of the real economy, which requires a mature and clear state at the regulatory level.”
However, the implementation of blockchain applications still requires continuous exploration. If the performance of the underlying infrastructure of the blockchain is not improved, it will be difficult to achieve commercial large-scale applications in the future. So, what is the reason why a large number of blockchain applications have not been successfully implemented? Charlie Hu, head of Polygon China, believes that:
One is not friendly enough to developers;
Second, the expansion performance is limited;
The third is the lack of interoperability, the core logic of which is the future blockchain There is not only one chain in the world, but multiple chains coexist. Based on the existence of different chains for different commercial applications, cross-chain interoperability is very important.
Why is interoperability important for different blockchains?
The “interoperability” of blockchain means that different blockchain networks can easily communicate with each other and share information. Interoperability mainly refers to application layer interoperability, inter-chain interoperability, and off-chain data interoperability. IOHK CEO and Cardano founder Charles Hoskinson said in an interview with Forbes that blockchain interoperability will allow for easy migration from one system to another.
In the blockchain industry, a blockchain that can meet the needs of users and operate efficiently is a necessity, and its status is relatively light. Although Ethereum has innovatively created smart contract technology and built a super ecosystem of various applications, it is far from meeting commercial needs, at least until Ethereum 2.0 is fully launched.
Why is blockchain interoperability so important? With the continuous expansion of blockchain technology itself and the expansion of applications in different industries, it is difficult to interoperate between different chains, it is difficult to connect between different applications, and it is difficult to trust the interaction between the chain and the chain. These problems are very big. To a certain extent, it limits the large-scale application of blockchain.
Scenario requirements may be different between different blockchains, and a large number of interactions need to be generated under these different requirements. Regarding interoperability, Iris, Head of Asia Business Strategy at Edge & Node, said: “If there are silos between chains, there is no way to interact, which will greatly affect applications. Interoperability cross-chain has different levels, From assets to data, to the lower-level consensus. Many projects have realized cross-chain assets, and the next step is to cross-chain data.”
It is far from realizing the interoperability between different blockchains. not enough. In the opinion of the chief magistrate of Leitu Technology, interoperability should not be limited to the blockchain ecosystem. Only by opening up the interoperability between the blockchain and the Internet can the user base be maximized.
Cross-chain technology is the key to achieving interoperability. Currently, cross-chain technologies include notary mechanisms, side chains/relay chains, hash time locks, and distributed private key control.
Aiming at the data trust and security issues in the interaction process, O3Labs product VP Tim believes that the interoperability of different chains may have some challenges. He added:
First, user experience. Products are made for more users, and user experience issues will be taken into account no matter in enterprises, institutions or consumers. Even if it can be achieved in terms of technology, it must also be realized in terms of experience.
Second, security. Different chains will need to adjust some off-chain data. Different chains have different methods, and it is very important to ensure the accuracy of the data. Because this will become a foundation, if there are many applications on this chain in the future, the accuracy and speed of these data must be very consistent.
Like privacy protection in the traditional Internet, privacy protection should also be paid attention to in the interaction between different chains and on-chain and off-chain. Every interaction should avoid privacy leakage during the interaction. Suterusu CTO Lin Huang said that at present, there are too many cross-chain projects, and there are many products in this area. However, there are relatively few products considering privacy protection that supports multi-chain. Suterusu has done a lot of privacy protection work now, and will be deployed on some chains in the future.
DistrictThe future of the chain – the coexistence of multiple chains The blockchain industry has been in constant evolution. In addition to Ethereum, there are many blockchains emerging with the same vision as Ethereum, such as EOS, Polkadot, Cosmos, Avalanche, Polygon, etc.
The development of competition and cooperation in various industries is inevitable, and so is the blockchain industry. Only by competition can we continue to innovate.
In the future, Ethereum will not be “one superpower, many strong”, and it will inevitably form a situation where multiple chains coexist. Different public chains and different infrastructures will have some differentiated competition, and finally these different chains are connected together through cross-chain technology.
When asked about the future development of blockchain, He Yifan, executive director of the BSN Development Alliance and CEO of Beijing Red Date Technology Co., Ltd., looked forward:
3 to 5 years later, especially the operating system layer is becoming more and more mature In this case, blockchain technology should become a regular technology. If the developer can’t even use a traditional database, there is no need to work at all. After 3 to 5 years, every developer should be able to build basic applications with blockchain technology.
4. What is a blockchain mesh network and what is it?
The blockchain service network is an “Internet”-like blockchain infrastructure, and is the world’s first blockchain-based network. Blockchain technology, the blockchain service network that embodies the second generation of intelligent Internet, is also the world’s largest consortium chain, providing high-level technical solutions, credible service carriers and modern technology for the development of smart cities and digital economy in my country. The infrastructure of the social governance system.
At present, the overall planning and top-level design of the blockchain service network have been completed, and the construction of more than 40 public city nodes in 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across the country has been completed. The blockchain service network will conduct an internal test for half a year. In the follow-up, China UnionPay will actively promote security and functional testing, technical architecture optimization, business operation plan formulation, basic service capacity building, and innovative applications with partners such as the State Information Center and China Mobile. Promotion and other work, and finally realize the commercial operation of the entire system.
Interested developers Interested developers can view the official website of the blockchain service network.
5. What is a computer network based on blockchain technology?
Blockchain (English: Blockchain or Block chain) is a distributed database that everyone may have The Bitcoin that has been heard, the core technology uses it. A blockchain is a series of data blocks associated with cryptographic methods. Each data block contains the information of a network transaction, which is used to verify the validity of its information and generate the next block. In a popular concept, the blockchain is an account that everyone can keep track of. In a company or institution, most people only have the right to read accounts, and only a few professionally trained people have the right to keep accounts. Of course, blockchain is not a ledger in the traditional sense. It has the following three key points in terms of technical principles: First, decentralization. In a network that practices blockchain technology, every computer covered by it can read and add records. From the perspective of the ledger, they are the people who keep the books together, and there is no authoritative person to guide and correct them. Second, asymmetric encryption. Don’t look at this account everyone can remember, but if you are not an insider, you must not be able to read it. Because, in the accounting process, everyone follows the unified encryption rules, but when reading, they must use their own unique decryption method. Therefore, although everyone keeps this constantly updated account, the part that can be read is limited to the part that they can decrypt, that is, the part related to themselves. Third, time stamps. Also known as timestamp (English: Timestamp), refers to a string or encoded information used to identify the recorded time and date. Each block on the blockchain is arranged in sequence according to the time of its generation, and is confirmed by collective certification. Also, previous records cannot be modified. Just like in a ledger, we can index and verify the previous content through the records after a point in time. Once these contents are confirmed, it is even more difficult to tamper with them.
Blockchain technology is a distributed database that maintains an ever-growing data record. These data are associated with all previously written data through cryptography, enabling third parties and even node owners. Difficult to tamper with. The block (block) contains the data that actually needs to be saved in the database, and these data are organized by the block and written to the database. Chain (chain) usually refers to the use of Merkle tree and other methods to verify whether all current blocks have been modified. Coders who have used Git have long been familiar with this. Recall how to modify the history of Git.
Blockchain technology is mainly divided into three categories, mainly public, collaborative and private.
ExampleSub: Bitcoin, Ethereum Frontier. The data on the public blockchain is accessible to everyone, and everyone can issue transactions waiting to be written to the blockchain. Participants in the consensus process (corresponding to miners in Bitcoin) maintain the security of the database through cryptography and built-in economic incentives. Public blockchains are fully distributed.
Highlights and pain points: The public blockchain is fully distributed and has all the characteristics of Bitcoin, but there needs to be enough cost to maintain the system running, relying on built-in incentives. At present, only Bitcoin is safe enough in the public blockchain. If the algorithm is the same as Bitcoin, ethane; there is no built-in reward, ethane; it is easy to concentrate computing power attacks (for example, as long as a large number of graphics cards are raided, etc. ), take jujube pills. The more valuable the data you are trying to save on the public blockchain, the more you need to examine its security, transaction costs and system scalability issues.
Example: Hyperledger and auditing systems attempted by accountants such as Deloitte. The nodes participating in the blockchain are pre-selected, and there is likely to be a good network connection between the nodes. Other consensus algorithms other than proof-of-work can be used on such a blockchain. For example, if a blockchain is established between 100 financial institutions, it is stipulated that more than 67 institutions must agree to reach a consensus. The data on such a blockchain can be public or internal to these node participants. Partially distributed.
Highlights and pain points: Collaborative blockchains can achieve good connections between nodes, maintain operation with very little cost, provide fast transaction processing and low transaction fees, and have many advantages. Good scalability (but the scalability will decrease as the number of nodes increases), and the data can have a certain degree of privacy. Developers have the ability to change the protocol under consensus, and there is no Bitcoin hard fork problem, but this also means that under consensus, everyone can tamper with data together. Collaborative blockchain also means that the application scope of this blockchain will not be too wide, lacking the network propagation effect of Bitcoin.
Example: Eris Instries. The participating nodes are only the users themselves, and the access and use of data are subject to strict permission management. Most of the blockchain technology for internal use announced by some financial institutions recently is vague, but it is likely to be within this range.
Highlights and pain points: Private blockchain is actually a very confusing term. Such a system is nothing more than a traditional shared database using Merkle Tree to try to show that the data in it can be verified. Such databases already have mature solutions, and Merkle tree is just one of many mature solutions. It’s easy for these projects to “meet together.” Since all users have the final say, the data inside has no characteristics that cannot be changed, and there is not much guarantee for third parties. Therefore, many private blockchains will exist by being attached to Bitcoin, such as periodically recording system snapshots into Bitcoin.
6. What is the working principle of the blockchain
What kind of technology is the blockchain technology that has been very popular recently? Blockchain technology is considered to be the brightest star in financial technology, and it may continue to develop blockchain technology in the future. It has many features, including a distribution of data and trust in data. degree and collective consensus mechanism, the most important thing is some very characteristic features such as openness, transparency and anonymous privacy. According to the data in these blockchains, we can get some basic information about contemporary society.
Blockchain technology is such a safe and scientific database. It can be simply understood as an authoritative database, and the basic content in it is true and verified and reviewed by others. In terms of financial technology, it will be very easy to find some desired data, which is very good for people who do business.
7. What are the blocks in the blockchain connected by?
Introduced by experts, the blockchain can be generally understood as a distributed public ledger, which is composed of Each block is connected into a chain. In the traditional accounting system, the accounting right is in the hands of the central server.
On the “ledger” of the blockchain, each point on the chain can record information on it, forming a point-to-point accounting system. Therefore, blockchain technology is considered a decentralized technology.
For example, in a village of 100 people, Zhang San bought a cow from Li Si and paid him 10,000 yuan. In the past, he had to rely on the middleman Zhao Liu to transfer his 10,000 yuan to Li Si.
With the blockchain system, Zhang San can directly record his 10,000 yuan to Li Si’s ledger, and the transaction information will be transmitted to the whole village, that is, the entire blockchain.system so that 98 other people can also see the information. The entire transaction process is recorded by the system, which has the advantage of traceability and prevents problems such as loss of Zhao Liu’s account book or Li Si’s refusal to acknowledge the account.
(7) What kind of network does the blockchain expand to read
The concept of blockchain was first proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008. In the years that followed, the blockchain became a core component of the electronic currency Bitcoin: as a public ledger of all transactions. By utilizing a peer-to-peer network and distributed timestamp servers, blockchain databases are capable of autonomous management.
The blockchain invented for Bitcoin made it the first digital currency to solve the problem of double spending. Bitcoin’s design has been an inspiration for other applications.
8. Briefly explain what a blockchain is
Blockchain is a term in the field of information technology. In essence, it is a shared database, and the data or information stored in it has the characteristics of “unforgeable”, “full traces”, “traceable”, “open and transparent” and “collective maintenance”. Based on these characteristics, blockchain technology has laid a solid “trust” foundation, created a reliable “cooperation” mechanism, and has broad application prospects.
On January 10, 2019, the Cyberspace Administration of China issued the “Regulations on the Administration of Blockchain Information Services”. On October 24, 2019, during the 18th collective study of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that “taking blockchain as an important breakthrough for independent innovation of core technologies” and “accelerating the development of blockchain technology and industrial innovation” . “Blockchain” has entered the public’s field of vision and has become the focus of society’s attention.
On December 2, 2019, the word was selected as one of the top ten buzzwords in 2019 by “Bite Words”.
(8) What network is the blockchain through? Major financial giants have also followed the news and launched blockchain innovation projects to explore the possibility of applying blockchain technology in various financial scenarios. In particular, Puyin Group pioneered the “blockchain +” standard digital currency.
Standard digital currency is an asset that has been authenticated, evaluated, confirmed, insurance and other processes completed by a third-party organization, and written into the blockchain through a meticulous digital algorithm to form a standard correspondence between assets and digital currency relationship, called the standard digital currency.
In order to realize the great leap-forward development of blockchain finance, in order to promote the new development of China’s economy, accelerate the circulation of global assets, and realize the dream of rejuvenation that generations of people have been fighting for, Puyin Group will launch an event in December 2016. On the 9th, the Puyin Blockchain Finance Guiyang Strategy Release Ceremony was held in Guizhou;
The meeting will discuss the digital circulation of assets realized by the blockchain, the financial transaction mode of the blockchain, and the development of blockchain services and services. The application of social and public industries will be discussed. This conference will mark the beginning of the application of blockchain finance and the transformation and development of a new financial ecosystem.
9. What is the side chain and the main chain in the blockchain
Main chain: that is, the officially launched, independent blockchain network. It can be said that the entity that stores data in the blockchain is generally considered to be the main chain network itself. For example, BTC mainnet, ETH mainnet and EOS mainnet are all main chains.
Sidechain: First of all, the essence of the sidechain protocol is a cross-blockchain solution. Simply put, through this scheme, data information can be transferred between two blockchains. The original proposal of the side chain is based on the transfer of Bitcoin and other digital assets between multiple blockchains.
In layman’s terms, a side chain is like a path that connects different blockchains to each other to achieve the expansion of the blockchain. The side chain is completely independent of the main chain, but the two ledgers can “interoperate” and achieve interaction.
Sidechain protocol – Sidechain protocol refers (take Bitcoin as an example): it can safely transfer Bitcoin from the Bitcoin main chain to other blockchains, and from other blockchains A protocol for safely returning to the Bitcoin main chain. The same is true here for exchanging bitcoin for ether or other blockchains. So why do we need sidechains, or what are the benefits of sidechains?
The function that the main chain lacks, the side chain provides.
For example, the Bitcoin network does not have the function of smart contracts, but this function can be achieved through side chains.
If the operation of the main chain is inefficient, some functions of the main chain can be transferred to the side chain for implementation.
For example, the transfer speed of the main chain is very slow, and there is no way to meet the daily payment needs. We can develop the Lightning Network as a side chain to meet the daily payment. Also because of low performance, Ethereum has no way to support large-scale commercial-level DAPP (decentralized applications), which can be achieved through side chain development.
If technical rigor aside, another moreTo understand the side chain in a single way, all networks that provide support or services for the original main network can be called side chains, regardless of whether the side chain adopts blockchain technology. For example:
The third-party payment network (Alipay/WeChat), the bank network can be imagined as the main chain, and the third-party payment is a kind of side chain.
In cryptocurrency transactions, the free network such as bitcoin and other virtual currencies are regarded as the main chain, and the exchange can be regarded as a side chain.
RSK and Loom, they are separately developed side chains for Bitcoin and Ethereum main chain respectively.
The first application, both the main chain and the side chain are centralized
The second application, the main chain is decentralized, and the side chain is Centralized
The third application, the main chain is decentralized, and the side chain is also decentralized With the deepening of blockchain technology, we can see the value exchange activities of human beings , it will gradually transition from the first application to the third application.
Lianqiao Education Online’s Xueshuo Innovation Blockchain Technology Workstation is a school planning, construction and development of the Ministry of Education of China. The “Smart Learning Workshop 2020-Xue-Master Innovation Workstation” carried out by the center is the only approved “blockchain technology major” pilot workstation. The professional station is based on providing students with diversified growth paths, promotes the reform of the combination of professional degree research, production, study and research, and builds an applied and compound talent training system.
10. What is the principle of blockchain
I saw some answers arguing about the definition of blockchain, and suddenly realized that my answer to explaining the principle was actually always right For Bitcoin, there is not a particularly clear and unique answer in the industry due to the definition of blockchain. Here, I will first give the characteristics of “blockchain” that individuals have concluded based on the papers they have read:
1. A data structure in the form of a “hash chain” (explained below) is used to save the basic data
2. There are multiple nodes participating in the system operation (distributed)
3. Reach consensus on the consistency of basic data through a certain protocol or algorithm (consensus protocol/algorithm).
Because bitcoin is currently one of the most typical and influential applications of blockchain, after understanding how bitcoin uses blockchain, then go to understand other forms of blockchain applications will be much easier.